Computer Science

Topics: Computer, Personal computer, Computer data storage Pages: 24 (5756 words) Published: October 8, 2014


The term “Computer” is derived from the Latin word “Computare” which means “to compute” or “to calculate”, so it is considered to be calculating device.

In fact, the main objective of inventing the computer was to create a fast calculating machine. But now-a-days more than 75% of non-mathematical or non-numerical work is carried out by the computers.

Today, computer technology has spread to every sphere of existence of modern man, from railway reservation to medical diagnosis, from TV programme to satellite launching; from match-making to criminal catching everywhere we witness the elegance, sophistication and efficiency possible only with help of computers.

A computer is an electronic machine that accepts data from the user, processes the data by performing calculations and operations on it, and generates the desired output results. Computer performs both simple and complex operations, with speed and accuracy. The computer is an electronic device which converts raw data into valid (or) meaningful information. Computer is a fast operating electronic device which automatically accepts and stores input data, processes them and produces results under the direction of a detailed step by step program.

Basic operations of a computer:
The computer has the following five basic operations to carry out any task. i) Input: It is the process of capturing or acquiring the information, or it is the raw data or information. By using this we can do any process.

ii) Process: It is the transformation process to convert the input in to output. iii) Output: It is the result, which comes from the transformation process or it is the outcome of the process. iv) Storing: It is the process of saving the data or information or instructions, so that they can be retained and retrieved whenever required. v) Controlling: It is the process of directing the manner and sequence in which all the operations are to be performed.

Characteristics of computers:
The characteristics of computers are listed below:
1. Speed:
Speed is the most important characteristics of a computer. The computer can process data very fast, at the rate of millions of instructions per second. Some calculations that would have taken hours and days to complete otherwise, can be completed in a few seconds using the computer. For example, calculation and generation of salary slips of thousands of employees of an organization, weather forecasting that requires analysis of a large amount of data related to temperature, pressure and humidity of various places, etc. The following are the measurements by which the speed of a computer is measured.

1 milli second
X 10-3 second
1 micro second
X 10-6 second
1 nano second
X 10-9 second
1 pico second
X 10-12 second

We do not measure speed in seconds or in milli seconds today, we measure speed in nano second and pico second.

2. Accuracy:
Computer provides a high degree of accuracy. The computers are perfect, accurate and precise. It never makes any mistake. Accuracy signifies the reliability of the hardware components of a computer. For example, the computer can accurately give the result of division of any two numbers up to 10 decimal places.

3. Automatic:
The computer works automatically, once programs are stored and data given to it. Constant supervision not required. Individual instructions are transferred one after another automatically for execution. Once the program is in the computer memory, the individual instructions are then transferred one after other to the control unit for execution. The CPU follows these instructions until it meets the last instructions.

Diligence (Endurance):

When used for a longer period of time, the computer does not get tired or


It can perform long and complex calculations with the same speed and accuracy

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