Language Development Exam 1 Study Guide

Topics: Linguistics, Language, Language acquisition Pages: 20 (4499 words) Published: September 25, 2013
Language Development Exam 1: 10/04/11
Ch.1 & 2 (ish) and 3 &4 (Heavily)

Chapter 1- Introduction to Language Development

Who studies language development?
-Developmental psychologists
-Linguists
-Neuropsychologists
-Speech/language pathologists
-Cognitive psychologists
-Philosophers
-Anthropologists

Learning is a complex, rule-governed system that most children learn without explicit teaching.

Language and Communication

-Cognition- the process of sensation and experience, ways of thinking and knowing. -Communication- the transfer of information from one person to another. -Language- Exchanging information into mutually understood symbols. -Modality- the manner in which language and communication is expressed. -Articulation (speech and sign)- the accuracy with which something is expressed.

Components of Language

Form
Meaning
Use
• Syntax: Sentence Structure
• Morphology: Structure of Words
• Phonology: Sound System
• Semantics or Lexicon:
• Meanings of words and phrases
• Pragmatics: Interactional skills, communicative competence • Sociolinguistics: Language use in society

-Phonology: The mental representation of sounds as part of a symbolic cognitive system -Morphology:
Morphemes- the minimal units of linguistic form and meaning Bound morphemes- cannot occur on their own as full words (adds additional meanings to words)
Free morphemes- can stand on there own. (full words)
-Syntax: how words are organized into sentences
- The order of words makes a big difference in meaning
-English is a word order language.
-Semantics: Learning the meanings of words and phrases
-Our lexical knowledge involves more than just the meaning.

Child Milestones for Language Learning

First year Major Milestone: 0-12 Months
- Pre-linguistic period even though a great deal of learning occurs
- Phonology: vocal Play, babbling
- Lexicon: Recognizes a few words, such as name
- Communicative competence: intentional communication

Second Year Major Milestone: 12-24 Months
- Phonology: developing sound system for spoken words
- Lexicon: Vocabulary grows to about 300 words
-Grammar: Combining words into sentences
- Communicative Competence: Talks about a range of things, mostly in the here-and-now.

Third year major Milestone: 24-36 Months
-Phonology: Articulation improves
- Lexicon: Large ranges of words including abstract words, like pretend, anger, sad, think. - Grammar: Longer and more complex sentences
- Communicative competence: Talks about a range, including past events and pretend.

Fourth year major Milestones: 36-60 Months
- Phonology: Phonological awareness, rhymes
- Lexicon: More words, and more abstract words (think, pretend) - Grammar: Complex sentences with embedded clauses
- Communicative competence: Learning to tell stories and talks about decontextualized topics a great deal. - Capable of complex turntaking

Beyond Four years of age
- Continue to learn more through school years and life
-Vocabulary
- How to use language
- Using language to learn new things
- Becoming literate

By School Age

-They can talk
-To learn and inform
-To tease, pretend, and lie
-To bond and assimilate culture
-To tell stories and entertain

What is it about our brains that allow us to acquire language from interaction?

The Nativist view: Children are born with a universal grammar that serves as a foundation to learn their specific language.
-Child acquire language rapidly, effortlessly, without direct instruction
-All languages share common features
-Innate cognitive mechanisms specific to language are ‘turned on’ by the input

Interactionist of Constructivist View: No innate universal grammar
- Language results from interacting using language
- Innate characteristics of the mind allow language to develop
-General cognitive abilities, not language specific
-Large role of experience in children...
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