Local Government: Chapter 3
Typology of Local Governments
Typology of Local Governments
o Economic Development Model
o Welfare State Model
Political leaders often have a great deal of
patronage at their disposal
Patronage is recognized as a power of the
e ecut ve branch.
executive b a c . In most countries, the
ost cou t es, t e
executive has the right to make many
The Patronage Model refers to political
patronage, used in certain countries, where
state resources are used to reward electoral
support of certain individuals.
Whil some patronage systems are legal, others
l l th
may attribute this to corruption or favoritism in
which a party in power rewards groups, families,
ethnicities for their electoral support using
illegal gifts or fraudulently-awarded
appointments or government contracts.
In some democracies, high-level
appointments are reviewed or approved
by the legislature. In other countries, such
as those using the Westminster system,
this is not the case.
Other types of political patronage may
violate the laws or ethics codes (nepotism
Low level political patronage, when not
entangled in financial means, is not
In the United States, t e U.S. Co st tut o
t e U te
provides the president with the power to
appoint individuals to government
positions. He also may appoint personal
advisers without congressional approval.
Not surprisingly, these individuals tend to
be supporters of the president.
Similarly, at the state and local levels,
governors and mayors retain
So e sc o a s ave a gue t at pat o age
Some scholars have argued that patronage
may be used for laudable purposes, such
as the "recognition" of minority
communities through the appointment of
their members to a high profile positions.
Other types of political patronage, as
mentioned earlier, may violate the laws or
ethics codes (nepotism and cronyism).
When Ja es Garfield became president,
e James Ga e beca e p es e t,
he appointed corrupt men to several
offices. This provoked the ire of the
Stalwarts, one of which, Charles J.
Guiteau, assassinated Garfield in 1881, six
months after he became President.
In Canada, there is a tradition that allows
the Prime Minister to appoint the heads
of a number of commissions and agencies;
in many cases, these appointments go to
people who have supported the political
party of the Prime Minister.
Bearfield argues that patronage is used for
four general purposes:
◦ Creating or strengthening a political
◦ Achieving democratic or egalitarian goals;
◦ Bridging political divisions and create
◦ Altering the existing patronage system.
Democrat William Magear Tweed (April 3,
1823 – April 12, 1878), ran the most
corrupt political machines in the
Tweed and cronies ruled the city and
state of New York with absolute power.
At the height of his influence, Tweed was the
third-largest landowner in New York City, a
director of the Erie Railway, the Tenth National
Bank, the New-York Printing Company, and
proprietor of the Metropolitan Hotel
Tweed was eventually convicted for stealing
between $40 million and $200 million from
New York City taxpayers through political
corruption. He died in the Ludlow Street Jail.
Economic Development Model
Local economic development may be
defined as increases in the “local
economy’s capacity to create wealth for
Such increases occur if local resources,
such as labor land, are used more
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