Republic of the Philippines
Pangasinan State University
Course Code: CAE 214
Teaching English as a Second Language
DR. MERLITA Q. SANTOS
Lecture Series No. _____
I. WHAT IS THE LECTURE ALL ABOUT?
The lecture is about the historical and grammar-based approaches to teaching English as a second language. Historical approaches included are sink or swim and ESL Pull-out while grammar-based approaches includes grammar-translation, audiolingualism and situational language teaching. Also included is the definition of important terms like approach, method, strategy, and technique. II. WHAT CAN YOU GAIN FROM THE LECTURE?
After the lecture and class discussion, you are expected to be able to: a. Differentiate approach, method, strategy, and technique; b. Identify the underlying principle between the historical approaches and the grammar-based approaches; c. Justify the objections to grammar-based approaches; and d. Evaluate the significance of grammar-based approaches in modern instruction.
III. WHAT ARE THE CONTENTS OF THE LECTURE?
Defining Approaches, Strategies, Methods, and Techniques…
Before proceeding to the main topic, it is very important to define the important terms first. These are approach, method, strategy and technique.
Approach, as shown in the diagram encompasses the whole orientation of teaching. It is the broadest of the three, making technique the most specific, and the method found in between approach and technique. It is an enlightened viewpoint toward teaching providing philosophy to the whole process of instruction. It gives the overall wisdom, it provides direction, and sets expectations to the entire spectrum of the teaching process. Approach sets the general rule or general principle to make learning possible Method is an organized, orderly, systematic, and well-planned procedure aimed at facilitating and enhancing students’ learning. It is undertaken according to some rule, which is usually psychological in nature. That is, it considers primarily the abilities, needs, and interests of the learners. It is employed to achieve certain specific aims of instruction. To make it as an effective instrument, it should be presented with certain amount of efficiency and ease. More so, the teaching method aims to achieve greater teaching and learning output, thus saving time, efforts and even money on the part of both the teacher and the learner. It directs and guides the teacher and the students in undertaking any class lesson or activity. Strategy is a reference to the methods and procedures utilized in teaching. According to Smith in his study Toward a Theory of Instruction, it is a pattern of acts that serves to obtain certain outcomes and to guard against certain others.”Aber et.al (1971) defined teaching strategy as : teaching strategy is a purposefully conceived and determined plan of action. According to McClosky (1971), a teaching strategy is a teaching approach that is used either in solving a classroom problem or in improving instruction. According to Frankael (1973), teaching strategies represent the combinations of specific procedures or operations, grouped and ordered in definite sequence that teachers can use in the classroom to implement both cognitive and affective objectives. Technique, on the other hand, encompasses the personal style of the teacher in carrying out specific steps of the teaching process. Through technique, teachers enable to develop, create and implement, using her distinctive way, the procedures (method) of teaching. Instructional Approach
This refers to the philosophy behind the instruction. There are several approaches to teaching English as a second language and two are going to be discussed in this lecture. The first is the historical approaches and the second is the...
References: The “How” Dimensions of Teaching (Garcia, 1989)
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