1 Grammar general

Topics: Linguistics, Grammar, Meaning of life Pages: 5 (2587 words) Published: June 21, 2015

Определение языка. Разграничение языка и речи. Язык как семиотическая система: его функции, элементы, структура. Языковые единицы как знаки. Сегментные и сверхсегментные языковые единицы. Уровни языковых единиц, их структурные и  функциональные признаки. Иерархические отношения между единицами разных уровней. Слово и предложение как основные уровнеобразующие языковые единицы. Текстовый уровень как сфера реализации (функциональной манифестации) всех языковых единиц. Три составные части (подсистемы, строя) языка: фонетическая (фонологическая), лексическая и грамматическая системы языка. Системность грамматики. Морфология и синтаксис как два основных раздела грамматики. Грамматика как отрасль языкознания. Теоретическая и практическая грамматика. Синтагматические и парадигматические отношения между языковыми единицами; синтагматические и парадигматические отношения в грамматике. План выражения и план содержания в языке; синонимия и омонимия в грамматике. Синхрония и диахрония; синхронические и диахронические отношения в грамматике.

Key terms: language, speech, semiotic system, lingual unit, systemic approach, segmental lingual units, supra-segmental lingual units, hierarchy, hierarchical (hierarchic) relations, phoneme, morpheme, word (lexeme), word-combination (phraseme), denoteme, sentence (proposeme), supra-sentential  construction (supra-phrasal unity, dicteme), predication, corteme, signeme, plane of content, plane of expression, synonymous relations (synonymy), homonymous relations (homonymy), paradigm, paradigmatic relations, syntagma, syntagmatic relations, synchrony, synchronic relations, diachrony, diachronic relations  

Language is a multifaceted, complex phenomenon which can be studied and described from various points of view: as a psychological or cognitive phenomenon, as a social phenomenon, from the point of view of its historic changes, etc. But first and foremost language is treated as a semiotic system (system of signs). A system is a structured set of elements united by a common function. Language is a system of specific interconnected and interdependent lingual signs united by their common function of forming, storing and exchanging ideas in the process of human intercourse. A systemic approach prevails in many spheres of linguistics, and it is particularly relevant and important in the sphere of grammar. The foundations of systemic language description were formulated at the turn of the 20th century in the works of many linguists, among them the Russian linguists I. A. Baudoin de Courtenay, A. A. Potebnya and others. The originator of the systemic approach in linguistics is considered to be a Swiss scholar Ferdinand de Saussure. He was the first to divide the phenomenon of language in general (in French: ‘language’) into two sides: an ‘executive’ side (‘parole’), concerned with the production, transmission, and reception of speech, and an underlying language system (‘langue’). This is one of the basic postulates of modern systemic linguistics: language in general comprises two aspects: the system of special lingual units, language proper, and the use of the lingual units, speech proper. In other words, language in the narrow sense of the term is a system of means of expression, while speech is the manifestation of the system of language in the process of intercourse. The system of language comprises the body of lingual units and the rules of their use, while speech includes the act of producing utterances and the result of it (the utterances themselves, or the text). Other terms are used in linguistics by different authors to denote the two basic aspects of language (which, however, do not always coincide with the ‘language – speech’ dichotomy): ‘language competence’ and ‘language performance’ (N. Chomsky), ‘ linguistic schema’ – ‘linguistic usage’, ‘linguistic system’ – ‘linguistic process’...
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