There are different linguistic samples (instances of English used in discourse) that can be used in different texts and that must fulfill their functions in the text. Texts function in human interaction in several ways:
* It is a communicative occurrence that must have textuality and if it, it is not communicative or it is a non-text. * It must have cohesion (connected elements along the text) based on grammatical dependencies (signals for sorting out meanings and uses) and between them there must be interaction. * It must have coherence (configuration of knowledge in the text) and the links between concepts must be related in a not explicit way. * It must have causality (how one event affects another one), enablement (when an action is possible but not necessary) reason (an action is the result of a previous event) or purpose (event which is planned to be possible because of a previous event). In terms of time; cause, enablement and reason have a forward directionality while purpose has backward directionality. Coherence is not a feature of texts but a consequence of different processes. * There must be a set of actions; location, agent and affected entity. The action is the purpose of the location and is the attribute of the agent, the locations are proximate and events are proximate in time. Inferencing is one’s knowledge of bringing a textual world together. The text must cooperate with cognitive psychologists for the study of the sense of a text that can vary depending on the reader. * Cohesion and coherence are text-centred notions but we need user-centred notions to comprehend the activity of communication. * The text must have intentionality too (producer’s attitude) and acceptability (receiver’s attitude). This attitude depends on several factors as social or cultural setting. * There must be informativity (occurrences are known/unknown or expected/unexpected in the text). Highly informative...
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