ED 413 784
FL 024 915
Bilingualism, Code-Switching, Language Mixing, Transfer and
Borrowing; Clarifying Terminologies in the Literature.
14p.; In: Kanagawa Prefectural College of Foreign Studies,
Working Papers, Volume 17, March 1996, p.49-60.
Journal Articles (080) -- Reports
MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
*Bilingualism; *Code Switching (Language); Definitions;
Foreign Countries; *Interference (Language); Interlanguage;
Language Research; *Linguistic Borrowing; Linguistic Theory; Second Language Learning; *Transfer of Training
Japanese People; *Language Contact
A study of second language acquisition in two Japanese
children, and corresponding examination of research literature, led to this effort to clarify terminology related to cross-linguistic influence in language contact situations. Terms include: bilingualism, code-switching, language mixing, language transfer, and borrowing. Two forms of transfer are distinguished: borrowing (the influence of a second language on a previously acquired language) and substratum (the influence of a native language or some other previously learned language on acquisition of another language). Borrowing refers to lexical borrowing, usually confined to single-item terms but sometimes extended to phrase- and sentence-level constructions. Code-switching is the alternation of languages within a single discourse, sentence, or constituent, and is rule-governed and characterized by social functions. Several theorists distinguish between kinds of code-switching: situational vs. conversational; emblematic vs. intimate; and matrix language vs. embedded language. Three distinct models of bilingualism are identified: (1) one positing two monolingual grammars and a separate grammar of code-switching; (2) two monolingual grammars combined in code-switching; and (3) two monolingual grammars used by a processor with a separated code-switching mechanism. Contains 39 references. (MSE)
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Bilingualism, Code-switching, Language Mixing, Transfer and
Borrowing: Clarifying Terminologies in the Literature'
Bilingualism and multilingualism are reported to be quite common in language
contact situations. Such linguistic phenomenon is widespread in Europe (Switzer-
land, Luxembourg, Belgium), Asia (India, Philippines, Indonesia) and Africa. In the Balkans, for instance, there is "considerable overlap in lexicon, phonology, morphology, and syntax among local varieties of Slavic and adjoining dialects of Greek, Rumanian and Alba-
nian" (Gumperz 1967:49); and the overlaps are said to be between historically unrelated lan-
Language contacts pose interesting issues from sociolinguistic point of view, such as language mixing, borrowings from other languages into the native...
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