Code Mixing 120315 054921 1

Topics: Linguistics, Code-switching, Second language acquisition Pages: 15 (5619 words) Published: March 15, 2015
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Yumoto, Kazuko
Bilingualism, Code-Switching, Language Mixing, Transfer and
Borrowing; Clarifying Terminologies in the Literature.
1996-03-00
14p.; In: Kanagawa Prefectural College of Foreign Studies,
Working Papers, Volume 17, March 1996, p.49-60.
Descriptive (141)
Journal Articles (080) -- Reports
MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
*Bilingualism; *Code Switching (Language); Definitions;
Foreign Countries; *Interference (Language); Interlanguage;
Language Research; *Linguistic Borrowing; Linguistic Theory; Second Language Learning; *Transfer of Training
Japanese People; *Language Contact

ABSTRACT

A study of second language acquisition in two Japanese
children, and corresponding examination of research literature, led to this effort to clarify terminology related to cross-linguistic influence in language contact situations. Terms include: bilingualism, code-switching, language mixing, language transfer, and borrowing. Two forms of transfer are distinguished: borrowing (the influence of a second language on a previously acquired language) and substratum (the influence of a native language or some other previously learned language on acquisition of another language). Borrowing refers to lexical borrowing, usually confined to single-item terms but sometimes extended to phrase- and sentence-level constructions. Code-switching is the alternation of languages within a single discourse, sentence, or constituent, and is rule-governed and characterized by social functions. Several theorists distinguish between kinds of code-switching: situational vs. conversational; emblematic vs. intimate; and matrix language vs. embedded language. Three distinct models of bilingualism are identified: (1) one positing two monolingual grammars and a separate grammar of code-switching; (2) two monolingual grammars combined in code-switching; and (3) two monolingual grammars used by a processor with a separated code-switching mechanism. Contains 39 references. (MSE)

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Bilingualism, Code-switching,

Language Mixing, Transfer and
Borrowing; Clarifying Terminologies
in the Literature

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Bilingualism, Code-switching, Language Mixing, Transfer and

Borrowing: Clarifying Terminologies in the Literature'
Kazuko Yumoto
1. Introduction

Bilingualism and multilingualism are reported to be quite common in language

contact situations. Such linguistic phenomenon is widespread in Europe (Switzer-

land, Luxembourg, Belgium), Asia (India, Philippines, Indonesia) and Africa. In the Balkans, for instance, there is "considerable overlap in lexicon, phonology, morphology, and syntax among local varieties of Slavic and adjoining dialects of Greek, Rumanian and Alba-

nian" (Gumperz 1967:49); and the overlaps are said to be between historically unrelated lan-

guages.

Language contacts pose interesting issues from sociolinguistic point of view, such as language mixing, borrowings from other languages into the native...

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Auer, JCP. 1980. A conversational analytic approach to code-switchng and transfer. In M. Heller
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Meeting, Chicago Linguistic Society
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(ed.) 1990
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Issues
Gumperz, J.J. 1970. Verbal strategies in multilingual communication. In J. Alatis (ed.) Bilingualism and Language Contact. Georgetown University Press.
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Dutchword order by Turkish and Moroccan foreign workers
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Lipski, J. 1985. Grammatical constraints on language switching. In Linguistic Aspects of Spanish-English Language Switching. Center for Latin American Studies, No.25. Arizona State
University.
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Children
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Praff C.W. 1976. Functional and Structural Constraints on Syntactic Variation in Code-Switching. In S. Steever, C. Walker, & S. Mufwene (eds.) 1976. Papers from the Parassession on
Diachronic Syntax
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in Spanish/English
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14.2
Saville-Troike, M. 1989. The Ethnography of Communication: An introduction. Basil Blackwell..
Taeschner, T. 1983. The sun is feminine. A study on language acquisition in bilingual children.
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Wentz, J. 1977. Some considerations in the development of a syntactic description of codeswitching. Ph.D. theses, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Woolford, E. 1983. Bilingual code-switching and syntactic theory. Linguistic Inquiry 14, pp.520536
Yumoto, K 1984
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