Cognitive Development

Topics: Language acquisition, Childhood, Linguistics Pages: 5 (1535 words) Published: August 13, 2013
ABSTRACT
The study identified the effect of early childhood education experience on the academic performance of primary school children. The research instrument used was the school continuous assessment records. Three hypotheses were formulated and tested using z-test statistics, at 0.05 level of significance. The study revealed that there is a significant difference between pupils who had pre-primary education and those without in their academic performances-cognitive ability, social skills and motor skills. Based on the findings and conclusion, appropriate recommendations were made.

Socioeconomic Factors that Impact Early Childhood Development Children living in lower-income households often face behavioural and learning challenges when they enter school. After controlling for income and parental education, children’s health and behavioural outcomes are unrelated to parental employment; according to the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Children with unemployed mothers are more likely to have low receptive vocabulary scores. This means that they will have more difficulty understanding spoken words. Unemployed mothers have more time to engage with their child, but are also more likely to experience depression In the pre-school years, the level of the mother’s education has a more significant role on her child’s language development than does the father, butthe father’s education becomes more important for school achievement after the child enters school There are several negative effects of growing up in a single-parent household mostly related to lower incomes and education Maternal depression can have adverse effects on mother-child interactions, resulting in reduced social and cognitive developmental outcomes Four factors are strongly related to children’s developmental outcomes: (1) parenting skills, (2) the cohesiveness of the family unit,(3) the mental healthof the mother, and (4) the extent to which parents engage with their children Red Deer UEY results found that low income families and single-parent families are more likely to be experiencing poor family functioning. Family functioning is related to children’s developmental outcomes, especially children’s behaviour Exposure to high-quality child care programs greatly impacts early childhood outcomes, especially for children from low socioeconomic households . hereditary influences on early childhood literacy it can be maintained that genetic influences are clearly evident and particularly so for children who are at risk for developing reading and writing difficulties. Phonological awareness seems to be a key factor in this process. For all children there are also obvious interaction effects so that a home environment stimulating print awareness and book reading will protect children from school failure. Early preschool programs adjusted to each child‟s prerequisites and interests will also be helpful in this respect.

Variation in early language and literacy development
Children acquire language proficiency in communication with the environment. Language development is thus linked to both a cognitive and a socio-cultural perspective. Language learning is an adaptive process consisting of biological prerequisites to process information as well as the communication patterns and language structures that the child encounters. The child stores information and adapts to new stimuli by reorganizing and adapting. This is however a reciprocal process since the social environment also adapts to the child. When the child begins to talk, the child possesses a powerful tool that can be used in influencing the social environment. Speech starts with an increase in vocabulary which is followed by morphology and grammar in typically developing children. This process is dependent upon the social environment of the child but does not require specific training. Literacy on the other hand does not occur by itself but has to be...
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