ASSIGNMENT: BUREAUCRACY IN NIGERIA AND
USA GOVERNMENT SYSTEM. HOW DOES THIS
AFFECT PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IN NIGERIA
AND USA SYSTEM.!
What is bureaucracy?
Bureaucracy as conceptually used in Public Administration is often associated with conduct of public affairs and the
activities of public officials. The term bureaucracy literally means “rule by desks or offices,” a definition that highlights the often impersonal character of bureaucracies. Therefore,
bureaucracies are found in political, religious, business,
military, educational and other organisations. Herbert Hicks and Gullet referred bureaucracy to “ A label, and not epithet, bureaucracy denotes an integrated hierarchy of specialised
offices, defined systematic rules an impersonal routinised
structure wherein legitimised authority rest in the office and not in the person of the incumbent.”
Bureaucracy can also be defined as an organisation designed
to accomplish large scale administrative rank by systematically coordinating the work of many individuals.
A system of government in which most of the important
decisions are taken by state officials rather than by elected representatives. It is an excessive complicated administrative procedure. It’s a type of government where most of the
decisions are made up by state officials rather than by elected representatives. It is also a body of non elective officials or an administrative policy making group. Bureaucracy has
developed negative connotations. The removal of unneeded
bureaucracy (civil service) is a key idea in modern central
issue in many political campaigns. Some scholars often assume that bureaucracy is antithetical to democracy. The power of the bureaucracy raises important questions about accountability. In
a democratic system, the government is accountable to the
people, yet bureaucrats are unelected, hard to fire, and wield important power. Therefore, some people view the bureaucracy as undemocratic. Others argue that Congress and the president may make the bureaucracy accountable. The president, for
example, might appoint reform-minded people to head
agencies or threaten to slash the budgets of recalcitrant
agencies. Congress might change the laws affecting agencies
or hold hearings to air grievances, which can force an agency to change its behaviour. Organisations in the public and private sector, including universities and governments, rely on
bureaucracies to function.
FEATURES OF BUREAUCRACY.
A formal hierarchical structure: this is the basis of central planning and centralised decision making.
Management by rules: controlling by rules allows
decisions made at high levels to be executed consistently
by all lower levels.
3. Organisation by functional specialty: work is to be done by specialists and people are organised into units based on the type of work they do or skills they have.
Purposely impersonal: The idea is to treat all employees
equally and customers equally, and not be influenced by
Only the best qualified people get hired and promoted; not
of family members or closed ones.
What is Public Administration?
Public Administration is the enacting of government policy
and also an academic discipline that studies this
implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service.
Public Administration is concerned with the management of
public matters like resources, programmes, activities and the implementation of public policies. Public Administration can be defined as all processes, individuals, organisation that are associated with carrying out laws and order, rules adopted or issues by legislature, executive and judiciary. It is also the use of managerial, political, and legal theories and processes to fulfil legislative, executive, and judiciary governmental
mandates for the provision of regulatory and service functions for the society as a...
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