World Applied Sciences Journal 16 (9): 1308-1313, 2012 ISSN 1818-4952 © IDOSI Publications, 2012
Comparing Intermediate EFL Students’ and Teachers’ Perceptions of Listening Comprehension Strategy Use Nasrin Hadidi Tamjid and Nasrin Babazadeh Department of Teaching English, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran Abstrcat: Language learning strategies are the thoughts and actions that learners employ to accomplish a learning goal. Extensive research has identified strategies used by students of a variety of second or foreign languages, but limited research has been carried out with regard to the listening comprehension strategy use of the students. The purpose of the present study was to compare intermediate EFL students’ and teachers’ perceptions of listening comprehension strategies. The research design for this study was descriptive. One research question led the study: Is there a difference between the intermediate EFL students’ and teachers’ perceptions of using six types of listening comprehension strategies including memory-related, cognitive, metacognitive, social, affective, compensation strategies? In order to answer the above questions, listening strategy use of the learners was assessed through a Farsi translation of Oxford’s Inventory for Language Learning. The participants of the present study were 90 female students from two language institutes of Tabriz. The results showed that there was no difference between the students’ and teachers’ perceptions of listening strategy use. Key words: Listening comprehension INTRODUCTION During the last twenty years, there has been an important variation within the field of language learning and teaching, resulting in more emphasis on learners and learning rather than teachers and teaching. This means that how learners process new information and what kinds of strategies they employ to understand, learn or remember the information have been the main concerns of the researchers dealing with the area of foreign language learning . Research into Language Learning Strategies (LLSs) started in the 1960s and in particular, progresses in cognitive psychology affected much of the research done on LLSs. In fact, cognitive domain of human behavior is of key importance in the acquisition of both a first and a second language. Ausubel, Novak and Hanesian  state that in cognitivist theories learners are considered as active processors of information whereas in behaviorist theories of learning learners are described as passive receivers of information. In cognitivist theories, learners make use of strategies. O’Malley and Chamot  define Language Learning Strategies as the particular thought or Listening strategies Perception
behaviors of processing of information that learners use to assist them comprehend, learn, or maintain new information. Oxford  points out that LLSs are particularly vital for language learning since they are tools for active, self-directed involvement, which is crucial for developing communicative competence. LLSs include four skills: listening, reading, speaking and writing, yet, in the present study the focus will be on listening comprehension strategies. Listening plays a crucial role in the communication process, in general and in language learning in particular . It helps learners benefit from different aural and visual texts in L2 available through network-based multimedia . According to Lynch and Mendelsohn , listening involves making sense of spoken language, normally accompanied by other sounds, with the help of our background knowledge and the context in which we are listening. In particular, listening strategies (LSs) are conscious attention of the learners’ to their comprehension processes so as to construct meaning . In fact, teachers can help language learners improve their listening competence by equipping them with useful listening strategies and skills . According to Oxford
References: 1. Hismanoglu, M., 2000. Language learning strategies in foreign language learning and teaching. Retrieved May 8, 2010 from http:// iteslj .org/ Articles/ Hismanoglu strategies.html. 2. Hutchinson, T. and A. Waters, 1987. English for specific purposes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 3. O’Malley, M. and A.U. Chamot, 1990. Learning strategies in second language acquisition. New York: Cambridge University Press. 4. Oxford, R., 1990. Language learning strategies: what every teacher knows. New York: New Bury House. 5. Dunkel, P., 1991. Listenning in the native and Second/Foreign Language: Toward an Integrationof Research and Practice. TESOL Quarterly, 25(3): 431-458. 6. Lotfi, G., 2012. A questionnaire of beliefs on English language listening comprehension problems: Development and evaluation. World Applied Sciences Journal, 16(4): 508-515. 7. Lynch, T. and D. Mendelsohn, 2002. Listening. In An introduction to applied linguistics, Ed. Schmitt, N. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp: 193-210. 8. Zhang, L.J., 2009. Making a case for skills/strategiesbased instruction for L2 listening development. Retrieved October 5, 2010 from http:// www.nus.edu.sg/celc/publications/RELT72/119 to 128 Zhang.pdf. 9. Oxford, R., 2001. Language learning strategies. In The Cambridge guide teaching English to speakers of other languages, Eds., Carter, R. and Nunan, D. UK: Cambridge University Press, pp: 166-172. 10. Chamot, A.U. and L. Kupper, 1989. Learning strategies in foreign language instruction. Foreign Language Annals, 22: 13-24.
11. Oxford, R.L. and D. Crookall, 1989. Research on language learning strategies: Methods, findings and instructional issues. The Modern Language J., 73(4): 404-419. 12. Ching-Yi, Ch, Shu-Chen, Ch and L. Yi-Nian, 2007. A study of language learning strategies used by EFL learners in Taiwan. Retrieved October 6, 2010 form http://www.mdu.edu.tw/~ged/ other % 20download/bulletin/20070319/11.pdf. 13. Rubin, J., 1994. A review of second language listening comprehension research. The Modern Language J., 78(2): 199-221. 14. Macaro, E., S. Graham and R. Vanderplank, 2007. A review of listening strategies: Focus on sources of knowledge and on success. In: A.D. Cohen and E. Macaro, Eds., language learner strategies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp: 165-185. 15. Teng, H.C., 1997. An investigation of EFL listening strategies by Taiwanese college students. Proceedings of the sixth International Symposium on English Teaching, 6: 509-520. 16. O’Malley, M., A.U. Chamot, g. Stewner-Manzares, L. Kupper and P.R. Russo, 1985a. Learning strategies used by beginning and intermediate ESL Students. Language Learning, 35(1): 21-46. 17. Zarafshan, M. and F. Sadighhi, 2006. Effects of attitude and motivation on the use of language learning strategies by Iranian EFL university students. Retrieved May 22, 2011 from http:// www.sid.ir/en/VEWSSID/J_pdf/103120064607.pdf. 18. Griffiths, C. and J. Parr, 2001. Language-learning strategy: theory and perception. ELT J., 53(3): 247-254. 19. Nunan, D., 1988. The learner-centered curriculum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 20. Kazempour, Y., 2009. Language learning strategies: Iranian EFL teachers’ and students’ Perceptions, M.A.Thesis, Islamic Azad University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran. 21. Nambiar, R. 2009. Learning strategy research –where are we now. Retrieved April 5, 2010 from http://www.reading matrix.com/ articles/ sept_2009/nambiar.pdf.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document