A CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF TENSE FORMATION AND USAGE IN JABA AND ENGLISH LANGUAGE
YARO MARY JAMES
A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE POST GRADUATE SCHOOL AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY, ZARIA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF A MASTER OF ARTS IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE. IN THE DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH AND LITERARY STUDIES, FACULTY OF ARTS, AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY, ZARIA.
CERTIFICATION This is to certify that this thesis has been examined and approved for the award of the Degree of a Master of Arts in English language.
___________________ Major Supervisor
_____________________ Minor Supervisor
_____________________ External Examiner
_______________________ Head of Department
________________________ Dean of Post Graduate School
DECLARATION I declare that this thesis titled a contrastive analysis of tense formation and usage in Jaba and English language was written by me under the supervision of Dr.(Mrs.) A. Enesi of the Department of English and Literary Studies. All quotations and sources are fully acknowledged by means of reference.
___________________ Yaro Mary James MA/ARTS/04455/2006-07
DEDICATION This work is dedicated to God for giving me inspiration, good health and strength to carry it out. I am also dedicating the work to my darling husband and children who had to suffer less attention in the course of the academic pursuit. I am equally dedicating this same work to my beloved late brother, Mr. Thomas Kato who laid the foundation for my education.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am most grateful to God for granting me the wisdom, courage and guidance in the course of my study and during my research work. I am especially grateful to my project supervisor Dr (Mrs.) A. Enesi who took her time to make the necessary suggestions, comments and corrections through the manuscripts of this project despite her other commitments. I also thank all my lecturers in the Department for their various contributions. My profound gratitude goes to my beloved husband, Mr. J.N. Yaro and children for their contributions through constant prayers, financial support, encouragements as well as for their patience during my absence in the course of this study. I am equally grateful to my younger brother, Mr. Philip Kato for supporting me financially. I am also grateful to Mr. Ezekiel Dubo for his cooperation during the period of data collection.
ABSTRACT The study investigated the use of tense forms to express time relations of different actions or events in written English of Kanyi dialect learners of English language. It also investigated reasons for the learners’ inability to appropriately use the tense forms. For an effective presentation, the study was divided into five chapters. The first chapter contained the introduction which highlighted the background of the study and the statement of the research problem. The statement of the problem was to investigate Kanyi (Jaba) learners’ problems with tense formation and its implication to learning while the aim of the study was to make a comparative study and analysis of the tense formation in English and Kanyi (Jaba) language as well as to investigate and highlight the syntactic patterns of both languages regarding tense formation and usage and how the differences that existed between them could affect Kanyi learners of English as a second language. The second chapter contained some related literature review on some related studies on contrastive analysis, second language learning and the meaning of tense in English. The third chapter discussed the methodology and the theoretical framework. Before selecting the theoretical framework, some grammatical theories were discussed. These included the transformational grammar theory, the traditional grammar...
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