Topics: Poverty, Economic growth, Literacy Pages: 15 (2024 words) Published: July 27, 2014

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Economic Development in India Since Independence
Economic Development in India Since Independence
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Economic Development in India Since Independence
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Concept of Economic development:
Till the 1960’s, the term economic development and economic growthwere used synonymously. However, the term economic development is nolonger considered as economic growth.Economic development is taken to mean growth plus progressive changesin certain crucial variables which determines the well being of the people.Economic development is much more than growth. It typically refers toimprovements in literacy rates, life expectancy, and poverty rates.Whereas, the term economic growth refers to the increase /growth of aspecific measure such as real national income, gross domestic product,or per capita income. There are various indicators of economic development which are asfollows: •

Literacy rates,


Life expectancy,

Natural resources,

Infrastructure, etc.
Literacy and economic development:
A simple definition of the literate person is one who can withunderstanding both read and write a simple statement relevant toeveryday life. Growth of literacy
: During the British period, progress of education wasrather tardy. Between 1881-82and 1946-47, the numbers of school grewfrom 82,916 to 134,866 and the number of students grew from 2,061,451to 10,525,943. Total enrollment at the primary level has increased from19,200,000 in 1950-51 to 109,800,000 in 2001-02.The number of highschools in 2000-01 was higher than the primary schools at the time of independence. The provision of universal and compulsory education for all children in theage group of 6-14 was a cherished national ideal and had been givenoverriding priority by incorporation as a directive policy in article 45 of thecommission, but it is still to be achieved more than half of the century 1

since the constitution was adopted. Parliament has passed theconstitution 86 th
amendment act, 2002, to make elementary education afundamental right for children in the age group of 6-14 years The table below shows the position of literacy in India at various years: YearLiteracy rate (%)

18813.219317.2194712.2195118.33196128.3197134.45198143.57199152.21200168.84 The diagram below shows the line representation of literacy rate: 2
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Government schemes to reduce illiteracy
Sarva Siksha Abhiyan
was launched in 2001 to ensure that allchildren in the age group 6-14 years attend school and complete eightyears of schooling by 2010. Important components of this scheme are theEducation guarantee scheme and alternative and innovative educationmeant primarily for children where there is no formal school within aradius of one kilometre. The centrally sponsored District education programme

launched in1994 has so far opened more than 160,000 new schools, including almost84,000 alternative schools. Of the estimated population of 205 million inthe age group 6-14 years on March 1, 2002, nearly 82.5%. The high droprate has been adopted to attract children to schools is a matter of majorconcern. One of the most popular schemes adopted to attract children toschools in the mid -day meals program

launched in 1995.
Poverty and economic development:
Poverty generally refers to failing to reach certain minimum consumptionstandard. Large numbers of India’s people live in abject poverty. Wealthdistributation in India is improving since the liberalization and with theend of the socialist rule termed as the license raj. While poverty in Indiahas reduced significantly, official figures estimate that 27.5% of Indiansstill lived below the national poverty line in 2004-05. A 2007 report by thestate-run national commission for enterprises in the unorganized sectorfound that 65% of the Indians, or 750 million people, lived on less than 20rupees per day with most working in...
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