THE UNIVERSITY OF ZAMBIA,
SCHOOL OF HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES, DEPARTMENT OF DEVELOPMENT STUDIES.
This assignment is an Endeavour to account for what has gone wrong in developing countries. It will discuss this using the theories of modernization and dependency. It will then state the theory which offers the best explanation, attribute to this and come to a conclusion. Before this, the assignment will define the concepts and terminologies involved. According to Todaro (2003) development is defined as a multi dimensional process involving major changes in the social structures, popular attitudes, natural instincts, and acceleration of economic growth reduction in equality and reduction in poverty. Development is the multidimensional term which entails quantitative increase in wealth and qualitative increase in the economy through the realization of natural resources and utilizing them in a better and efficient manner. It also entails better social division of labour and capital and advancement in technology and its utilization. On the other hand Todaro (2003), defines underdevelopment as the economic situation in which there are persistence low levels of living in coupled with absolute poverty, low rates of economic growth and low income per capital, low consumption levels, poor health, high dependency on foreign economies, and limited freedom to choose from among activities that satisfy human necessities it is also a state which has not reached a level of maturity. Many people mistake underdevelopment for lack of development which is rather not true, it is actually a product of development. Underdevelopment derives inevitably from colonial or neo colonial forms of economic exploitation which imposes itself in many ways like the exploitation of less developed countries (LDCs) for cheap raw materials, labour and other strategic interest like seeking for new markets. A theory is defined as a preposition or a set of prepositions aim at explaining phenomena. Mainly it is a set of ideas or a body of knowledge organized to offer logical explanation to the interrelationship among different variables (Carmody, B 2004).a theory can therefore be to be a set of tentative statements that attempt to explain phenomena. Poverty is the state of being poor. It also a state of deprivation when minimum income levels needed to secure the necessities of life cannot be met. There are two levels of poverty namely relative poverty and absolute poverty. According to Debeer() absolute poverty is a situation were incomes are so low that even the minimum standards of shelter and other necessities cannot be maintained, relative poverty is when basic necessities of like can be afforded but activities referred to as customary in that particular society are met. poverty which affects individuals is called case poverty while that which affects a cross section of the society in either the same geographical location or who depend on a common economic activity to sustain themselves is called community poverty. According to De Beer(32) Modernization is depicted as moving from poverty or underdevelopment. According to Todaro.M.P (2003) defines modernisation as a process of change towards higher levels of development or civilization towards those of western nations or the north. It is adopting social economic systems like those of the United States, Japan, France and Germany. it also referred to as the application of the improvements made in science and research to better the lives of the people. Dependency is the condition in which the economic development of a developing country is conditioned by the development and expansion of another developed country.(ibid 158). Less developed countries (LDCs) are also known as developing...
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