An analysis of cohesive devices in reading texts in English 11 / Hoàng Trà My PART 1: I TRODUCTIO 1. Rationale Among all skills which students need to master in English, reading is considered to be very important because it helps students to get materials for other skills. To learn reading well, it is necessary for students to comprehend sufficient language base, one of which is the cohesion in the text. Because of the importance of cohesion in comprehending a text, this small study on discourse analysis of cohesive devices is decided to be carried out. 2. Aims of the Study: The study aims: - to describe and analyze lexical and grammatical cohesive devices in the new English textbook 11; - to give some suggestions for teaching reading skill for 11th grade students. In order to achieve the aims stated, the study is meant to find out the answers to the two following research questions: 1. What are the grammatical and lexical cohesive devices used in reading texts in English textbook 11? 2. How can the findings help English teachers and 11th grade students to improve reading skill? 3. Scope of the Study Because of the lack of time and the paper size, it is unable for all the issues of discourse to be analyzed. The study focuses on the grammatical and lexical cohesive devices in reading texts in the new English textbook 11. 4. Significance of the Study The study contributes to verifying the correctness and significance related to linguistic theories in discourse analysis by analyzing discourse in one specific textbook. In addition, the practical significance of the study is to help 11th grade students and teachers in reading skill by applying the knowledge of cohesion. 5. Methods of the Study: descriptive, statistical and analytical methods 6. Design of the Study The minor thesis consists of three parts:
2 - Part 1 is The Introduction - Part 2 is The Development which is divided into three chapters: Literature Review, Methodology and Major Findings and Discussions - Part 3 is The Conclusion
PART 2: DEVELOPME T CHAPTER 1: LITERATURE REVIEW
1. Discourse and Discourse Analysis 1.1. The Concept of Discourse Discourse is defined in various ways by different scholars and authors, however, the definition given by Halliday and Hasan (1976) is regarded as the simplest and the clearest to follow. Halliday and Hasan (1976: 38) state that discourse is language that is functional. It means that discourse is “language in use”. 1.2. Text and Discourse In the view of Halliday and Hasan (1976: 23), “text” is employed to refer to “discourse”; they see “text” as a “semantic unit” characterized by cohesion. Sharing the same ideas, Brown & Yule (1983) support that text is the representation of discourse and the verbal record of a communicative act. In other words, they all view the notion of text is the representation of discourse, text is the form of discourse and they have a close relationship. 1.3. Spoken and Written Discourse Spoken and written language can be also distinguished by different functions. According to Brown and Yule (1983: 13), the function of spoken language is mainly to establish and maintain human relationship whereas written language has functions to store information from time and space and to permit words and sentences to be examined out of their original contexts. 1.4. Discourse Analysis In the view of Brown and Yule (1983: viii), discourse analysis is concerned with a broad range of activities including many disciplines from sociolinguistics, philosophical linguistics to computational linguistics. To be clearer, Brown and Yule (1983: 1) write, “the analysis of discourse is, necessarily, the analysis of language in use. As such, it cannot be restricted to the description of linguistic forms independent of the purposes of functions which these forms are designed to serve human affairs”. 1.5. Context in Discourse Analysis According to Nunan, D (1993: 7), context is the situation in which discourse is...
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