In India, agriculture was the main source of national income and occupation at the time of Independence. Agriculture plays an essential role in the process of economic development of less developed countries like India. Besides providing food to nation, agriculture Releases labour, provides saving, contributes to market of industrial goods and earns foreign exchange.
Indian economy was a backward and agricultural based economy at the time of Independence. After 61 year of Independence, the share of agriculture in total national income declined from 50 percent in 1950 to 18 percent in 2007- 08. But even today more than 60 percent of workforce is engaged in agriculture. In spite of this, it is also an important feature of agriculture that is to be noted that growth of other sectors and overall economy depends on the performance of agriculture to a considerable extent. Because of these reasons agriculture continues to be the dominant sector in Indian Economy.
Since independence India has made much progress in agriculture. Indian agriculture, which grew at the rate of about 1 percent per annum during the fifty years before Independence, has grown at the rate of about 2.6 percent per annum in the post-Independence era. Expansion of area was the main source of growth in the period of fifties and sixties after that the contribution of increased land area under agricultural production has declined over time and increase in productivity became the main source of growth in agricultural production. Another important facet of progress in agriculture is its success in eradicating of its dependence on imported foodgrains. Indian agriculture has progressed not only in output and yield terms but the structural changes have also contributed. All these developments in Indian agriculture are contributed by a series of steps initiated by Indian Government. Land reforms, inauguration of Agricultural Price Commission with objective to ensure remunerative prices to producers, new...
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