dr Hanna Dziczek-Karlikowska
Phonology and Phonetics – year I
LECTURE I - INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION
PHONETICS and PHONOLOGY
TWO SUBDISCIPLINES IN LINGUISTICS WHICH DEAL WITH SOUNDS
1. LINGUISTICS: the scientific study of language and its structure. There are broadly three aspects to the study: language form, language meaning, and language in context.
APPLIED Anthropological linguistics
Computational linguistics Comparative linguistics
Forensic linguistics Historical linguistics
Evolutionary linguistics Sociolinguistics
2nd language acquisition
Provides objective ways of describing and analysing the range of sounds humans use in their languages, that is, it is concerned with the physical properties of sounds, i.e. phones. Branches of phonetics: articulatory, acoustic and auditory.
a. Articulatory phonetics: identifies precisely which speech organs and muscles are involved in producing the different sounds of the world’s languages; b. Acoustic phonetics: the study of speech as it travels through the air in the form of sound waves; c. Auditory phonetics: the study of how sounds are perceived by the hearer’s ears and brain.
It studies the way speech sounds are organised into patterns and systems in a particular language. 4. PHONETICS vs. PHONOLOGY
Phonetics: more concrete field of study than phonology; itis concerned with more detailed, physical description of speech sounds. Phonology: more abstract field of study than phonetics; it is concerned with the functioning of speech sounds as part of a system within a language and the relationships between them. Phonology tries to answer the following questions:
How are the sound patterns of one language different from those of another language (phonotactics)?
Why do L2 learners have particular pronunciation problems (phonological processes)? How do the sound patterns of a language change over time or over geographical area?
5. RECEIVED PRONUNCIATION (RP)
Also known as: BBC English, Oxford English, Royal English, the Queen’s English Some prestige is still attached to this implicitly accepted social standard of pronunciation.
‘A pronunciation of British English, originally based on the speech of the upper class of southeastern England and characteristic of the English spoken at the public schools and at Oxford and Cambridge Universities’ (The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: 2000)
The term suggests that it is the result of a social judgment rather than of an official decision as to what is ‘correct’ or ‘wrong’. The first RP model of pronunciation was codified by Daniel S. Jones in Outline of English Phonetics, 1918 and English Pronouncing Dictionary, 1917.
6. TRANSCRIPTION OF ENGLISH
Phonetic symbols are used to represent sounds, e.g. the word ‘enough’ is written (transcribed) as /ɪnʌf/.
The list of phonetic symbols (phonemes) for British English ɪ as in ‘pit’ pɪt
i: as in ‘key’ ki:
e as in ‘pet’ pet
ɑ: as in ‘car’ kɑ:
æ as in ‘pat’ pæt
ɔ: as in ‘core’ kɔ:
ʌ as in ‘cup’ kʌp
u: as in ‘cool’ ku:l
ɒ as in ‘pot’ pɒt
ɜ: as in ‘first’ fɜ:st
ʊ as in ‘put’ pʊt
ə as in ‘upper’ ʌpə
eɪ as in ‘bay’ beɪ
əʊ as in ‘go’ gəʊ
aɪ as in ‘buy’ baɪ
aʊ as in ‘cow’ kaʊ
ɔɪ as in ‘boy’ bɔɪ
ɪə as in ‘peer’ pɪə
eəas in ‘fare’ feə
ʊəas in ‘poor’ pʊə
p as in ‘pea’ pi:
b as in‘bee’ bi:
t as in ‘toe’ təʊ
d as in ‘doe’ dəʊ
k as in ‘cap’ kæp
g as in ‘gap’gæp
f as in ‘fat’ fæt
v as in ‘vat’væt
ɵ as in ‘thing’ ɵɪŋ...
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