Lecture 2 Branches Of Typology Of Languages 1

Topics: Linguistics, Historical linguistics, Language family Pages: 15 (634 words) Published: May 11, 2015
Lecture №2 Branches of typology of
languages
1.Typological classification of languages.
2. The subject of comparative typology and its aims.
3. The difference between typological and historic and
comparative linguistics.
The word typology consists of two Greek morphemes:
a) typos means type and b) logos means science or
word. Typology is a branch of science which is typical
to all sciences without any exception. In this respect
their typological method is not limited with the sphere
of one science.

It has a universal rise. So typology may be
divided into:
1.                Non-linguistic and
2.                Linguistic typology

Non-linguistic typology is the subject
matter of the sciences except linguistics.

Linguistic typology is a new branch
of general linguistic which studies the
systems of languages comparatively,
also finds common laws of languages
and establishes differences and
similarities between them.

Typological classification of
languages.
In linguistics we may come across many
terms as to the terminological nature of
linguistic typology. The are:
• 1. Comparative (or contrastive)
linguistics, 2. Comparative methods,
• 3. Comparative – historical method,
• 4. Comparative typology,
• 5. Comparative grammar,
• 6. Connotation grammar,
• 7. Descriptive – comparative linguistics

According to the notion of comparison of
linguistics phenomenon and the aim
directed on we may classify linguistic
typology into the following parts





a) genetic of genealogical typology,
b) structural typology,
c) areal typology
d) comparative typology.

Genealogical typology is a
branch of linguistic typology which
studies the similarities and the
relationship between the related
languages. It is applicated to the
systems of genetically related
languages. Genealogical typology
developed from the comparative –
historical linguistics dominated
during the 19th century in Europe.

• Comparatives gave two kinds of
classification of languages –
genealogical and morphological.
Genealogical classification deals
with the family relationship of
languages which descend from one
common ancestor. It distributes
languages into different families.

• Morphological classification deals
with the classification of languages
according to their structural features
instead of a genealogical origin.
According to the morphological
classification the languages are divided
into: Flexional, Agglutinative,
Isolating Polysynthetic.

Areal Linguistics - is a branch of
Linguistics that studies distribution
of linguistic phenomena in the
spatial extent and interlingual
interaction.
Structural linguistic typology can
be understood as a systematization
of linguistic phenomenon from
different languages according to
their specific structural features. SТ
typology research makes it possible
to establish some traits are
universal, unique, and special.

• Comparative typology, as the
notion itself reveals, represents a
linguistic subject of typology based
on the method of comparison. Like
typology proper Comparative
typology also aims at establishing
the most general structural types of
languages on their dominant or
common phonetically, morphological,
lexical and syntactical features.

The final aims of
comparative typology
are:
• to identify and classify accordingly the
main isomorphic and allomorphic features
characteristic of languages under
investigation;
• to draw from these common or divergent
features respectively the isomorphic
regularities and the allomorphic
singularities in the languages contrasted;

• to establish on the basis of the
obtained isomorphic features the
typical language structures and
the types of languages;
• to perform on the basis of the
obtained practical data a truly
scientific classification of the
existing languages of the world;
• to establish on this basis the
universal features/phenomena,...
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