Topics: Linguistics, Semantics, Lexicology Pages: 4 (1095 words) Published: November 13, 2013
Lecture I
Lexicology As a Science. The Word As the Basic Unit of Lexicological Research.

The term lexicology is composed of two Greek morphemes: “legis” (word) and “logos” (learning). Thus, the literal meaning of the term “lexicilogy” is “the study of words”. There is general lexicology and special lexicology. General lexicology studies vocabulary in different languages of the world. Special lexicology studies the vocabulary of one language. There is also historical lexicology and descriptive lexicology. Historical lexicology studies the changes of the vocabulary in the course of time. Descriptive lexicology studies the vocabulary at a given stage of its development. Historical lexicology uses the diachronic approach to the vocabulary, it focuses on the regularities of the development of the vocabulary. Descriptive lexicology uses the synchronic approach to the vocabulary; it describes the principles of the organization of the vocabulary as a system. There also exist comparative lexicology, which studies the lexical systems of closely related languages aiming at their typological [ai] identity or differentiation; contrastive lexicology, which studies similarities and differences of related and non-related languages; and applied lexicology, which includes terminology and lexicography, translation, linguodidactics [i] and pragmatics of speech. Lexicology is connected with other subjects such as phonetics, grammar, stylistics and history of the language. All these subjects study the word, but from different angles. Phonetics studies the sounds that make up a word. Grammar studies the use of words in speech. Stylistics studies the use of words in different situations: formal and informal. The history of the language tells about the development of words in different periods of their history: how the words changed – lost their endings, began to sound differently; it tells about the change of the phonetical and grammatical structure of the language. Thus, in...
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