1. Lexicology as a science
Linguistics is the scientific study of language. There are broadly three aspects to the study, which include language form, language meaning, and language in context. Linguistics includes: Phonetics, Phonology, Morphology, Syntax, Semantics, Pragmatics, Discourse analysis, Stylistics, Semiotics. Lexicology as a branch of linguistics has its own aims and methods of scientific research, its basic task being a study and systematic description of vocabulary in respect to its origin, development and current use. Lexicology is concerned with words, variable word-groups, phraseological units, and with morphemes which make up words. Lexicology is closely related to:
Stylistics. Linguo-Stylistics is concerned with the study of the nature, functions and structure of stylistic devices Psycholinguistics or psychology of language, the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that help humans to use, produce language. Linguistic Anthropology is the interdisciplinary study of how language influences social life. Ethnolinguistics (sometimes called cultural linguistics) is a field of linguistics which studies the relationship between language and culture, Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, the way language is used. Lexicology can be General and Special. General Lexicology is part of General Linguistics; it is concerned with the study of vocabulary irrespective of the specific features of any particular language. Special Lexicology is the Lexicology of a particular language .
2. There are two principal approaches in linguistic science to the study of language material, namely the synchronic (Gr. syn — ‘together, with’ and chronos — ‘time’) and the diachronic (Gr. dia — ‘through’) approach. The synchronic approach is concerned with the vocabulary of a language as it is at a given time, for instance, at the present time. It deals with the vocabulary and vocabulary units of a particular language at a certain time. The diachronic approach deals with the changes and the development of vocabulary in the course of time. It is special Historical Lexicology that deals with the evolution of the vocabulary units of a language as time goes by. The distinction between the synchronic and the diachronic study is merely a difference of approach separating for the purposes of investigation what in real language is inseparable. The two approaches should not be contrasted; in fact, they are interconnected and interdependent. E.g. beg-beggar, sing-singer
3. There is Historical Lexicology , Contrastive and Comparative Lexicology whose aims are to study the correlation between the vocabularies of two or more languages, and find out the correspondences between the vocabulary units of the languages under comparison. Comparative Lexicology is closely connected with Cognitive Lexicology, which is based on the assumption that words of the language represent our knowledge of the world which is the result of cognitive process. It studies how human knowledge is represented in vocabulary and also studies the laws of vocabulary . The following are also parts of Lexicology: Semantics – studies meanings of words; Etymology – origin of words; Phraseology – special lexical units (idioms, set-phrases, etc.); Lexicography – an applied branch – deals with science of compiling dictionaries. 4. Linguists estimate that there are about 6,000-7,000 different languages spoken in the world today. There are about 200 languages that have a million or more native speakers. English is worldwide in its distribution. It is an official language in 52 countries as well as many small colonies and territories. In addition, a quarter of the people in the world understand and speak English to some degree. In reality, the distribution of languages globally is very complex and difficult to easily describe. Numerous migrations of people have resulted in most large...
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