LANGUAGE AND LINGUISTICS
The origin of Language
Features of Language
Knowledge of Language
Branches of Linguistics
Approaches to Linguistic Studies
Schools of Linguistics
THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE
The divine source
The natural sound source o Primitive words
o Cuckoo, splash, rattle, hiss, buzz
“Bow-wow theory of language origin.”
The social interaction source
The physical adaptation source
The tool-making source
The genetic source
Child development è Automatic
Deaf children è Fluent users of sign language è innateness hypothesis
We are born with a capacity for speaking/using language
(See Yule, Ch.1; Fromkin et al., Ch.6)
MAJOR FEATURES OF HUMAN LANGUAGE
Communicative : function of language is to communicate
Vocal : human vocal organs are used
Human : sophisticated use of language is unique to human species 4-
Social : it ıs used by the members of a community
Natural : ıt is a natural phenomena
Changeable : it can and will change trough time
Rule-governed : there are systematic rules in it.
Product of mind : it is the product of mental operation
Arbitrary : no systematic relationship between form and meaning 10-
Creative : language is used creatively
MINOR FEATURES OF LANGUAGE
Language , unless recorded, flies away the movement we speak it. 2-
Self-talk is a form of language
We talk in our minds : inner speech
We can not help but to process and understand what we hear. 5-
Language can be used by some to xert their power over others. 6-
Language is used for cultural preservation and transmission . 7-
Language is varied : not monolithic.
The direction of changes in language is not predictable.
Language is personal as well as social.
Language is a means for mental and social development.
Language is a predictor of social identity.
Language reveals patterns of how mind works.
All languages have the same potential for development
KNOWLEDGE OF LANGUAGE
“I know English.”
Produce individual sounds and combining them (Phonetics & Phonology);
Form and dividing words (Morphology);
Combine these words into phrases and sentences (Syntax);
Understand the meaning of words, phrases and utterances (Semantics);
Use the language appropriately in different contexts (Pragmatics).
Language is an arbitrary and changeable set of vocal symbols which are cognitively formulated, and socially used for human natural communication.
Linguistic knowledge is knowledge about language which is acquired unconsciously.
• Linguistics is the scientific or logical examination of any aspect and property of language including the influences of language on any sphere of life.
BRANCHES OF LINGUISTICS
Phonology (Ses Bilimi)
Morphology (Dil Bilimi)
Syntax (Söz dizimi)
Semantics (Anlam Bilim)
APPROACHES TO LINGUISTIC STUDIES
SCHOOLS OF LINGUISTICS
Based on study of Latin
Applied to other languages, e.g. English, French
19th C. Jacob Grimm, Max Müller, Henry Sweet
Ferdinand De Saussure
Linguistics features as abstract system governing speech
Langue and parole
While language is regarded as language system stored in the mind of its speakers, parole is conceived as the actual language behavior
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