Linguistics

Topics: Linguistics, Natural language, Universal grammar Pages: 6 (1132 words) Published: September 6, 2013

Language and Mind – Spring 2013 – Second Practice Exam

1. Which of the following statements about parameters is FALSE?

a. They specify the limits on possible differences between languages b. They do not belong to Universal Grammar #
c. Their values must be “set” on the basis of experience

2. From the viewpoint of the principles-and-parameters theory, the process of language acquisition consists of:

a. Setting the choice for each parameter that fits the language that is being acquired # b. Storing words and sentences in memory
c. Learning the order in which words occur in sentences

3. If some property X is true for all languages, we can conclude that:

a. X may be a property that all and only languages have (i.e. a language-unique universal) # b. X must be a general property of all cognitive systems
c. X is determined by the universal human articulatory apparatus

4. The fact that young infants do not forget about objects that they have seen after these objects have been taken away is called:

a. object shift
b. habituation
c. object permanence #

5. Consider the following two question sentences:

i. When did the boy say he fell out of the tree?
ii. When did the boy say how he fell out of the tree?

The first question is ambiguous because:

a. It is not clearly formulated
b. It has two different underlying deep structures #
c. It has one sentence embedded in another sentence

6. The statement: perception is ahead of production means that:

a. Children can articulate words before they can recognize and understand them b. Children can recognize and understand words and sentences that they cannot yet properly produce themselves# c. Children’s visual abilities are better than their auditory abilities

7. The special way in which parents speak to young infants is called

a. Telegraphic speech
b. Motherese or parentese#
c. Recursion

8. The ‘Critical Period’ that is relevant for first and second language acquisition

a. That is correct #
b. That is incorrect because it is only relevant for first language acquisition c. That is incorrect because it is only relevant for second language acquisition

9. Genie’s success in acquiring English turned out to be very limited. The greatest problem she had was:

a. Learning words
b. Understanding what people said to her
c. Forming utterances with syntactic structure #

10. Genie's case provides important support for:

a. The critical period hypothesis #
b. The role of ‘motherese’ in language acquisition
c. The Poverty of stimulus argument for innateness

11. Imagine the following scenario: Some Japanese people come to Mexico to do business. None of them speaks Spanish, and none of their Mexican partners speaks Japanese. There is no other language that these two groups have in common. Therefore, they have to develop a kind of ‘auxiliary communication system’ that can fit this special circumstance. This system is most likely to be a:

a. creole
b. pidgin #
c. English

12. According to Derek Bickerton a creole language is created by:

a. adults who are forced to communicate with each other over a long period of time without having a shared language b. people who need to have a secret language
c. children whose linguistic input consists of a pidgin spoken in their community #

13. The fact that children are apparently capable of producing a creole language which has grammatical properties that are not present in the pidgin input can be used as evidence for:

a. The view that children have innate knowledge of language structure # b. The view that pidgin languages have hidden grammatical structure c. The view that children are born with blank slate minds

14. For a universal to count as an argument for the IH, which of the following three conditions is NOT necessary:

a. The universal must be true of languages only
b. We cannot explain the universal in any other way
c. The universals must...
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