Topics: Linguistics, Transformational grammar, Noam Chomsky Pages: 10 (2931 words) Published: March 30, 2012
Transformational grammar
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In linguistics, a transformational grammar or transformational-generative grammar (TGG) is a generative grammar, especially of a natural language, that has been developed in the Chomskyan tradition of phrase structure grammars (as opposed to dependency grammars). Additionally, transformational grammar is the tradition that gives rise to specific transformational grammars. Much current research in transformational grammar is inspired by Chomsky's Minimalist Program.[1] Contents  [hide]  * 1 Deep structure and surface structure * 2 Development of basic concepts * 3 Innate linguistic knowledge * 4 Grammatical theories * 5 "I-Language" and "E-Language" * 6 Grammaticality * 7 Minimalism * 8 Mathematical representation * 9 Transformations * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 External links| -------------------------------------------------

[edit]Deep structure and surface structure
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In 1957, Noam Chomsky published Syntactic Structures, in which he developed the idea that each sentence in a language has two levels of representation — a deep structure and a surface structure.[2][3] The deep structure represented the core semantic relations of a sentence, and was mapped on to the surface structure (which followed the phonological form of the sentence very closely) via transformations. Chomsky believed there are considerable similarities between languages' deep structures, and that these structures reveal properties, common to all languages that surface structures conceal. However, this may not have been the central motivation for introducing deep structure. Transformations had been proposed prior to the development of deep structure as a means of increasing the mathematical and descriptive power of context-free grammars. Similarly, deep structure was devised largely for technical reasons relating to early semantic theory. Chomsky emphasizes the importance of modern formal mathematical devices in the development of grammatical theory: But the fundamental reason for [the] inadequacy of traditional grammars is a more technical one. Although it was well understood that linguistic processes are in some sense "creative," the technical devices for expressing a system of recursive processes were simply not available until much more recently. In fact, a real understanding of how a language can (in Humboldt's words) "make infinite use of finite means" has developed only within the last thirty years, in the course of studies in the foundations of mathematics. —Aspects of the Theory of Syntax

[edit]Development of basic concepts
Though transformations continue to be important in Chomsky's current theories, he has now abandoned the original notion of Deep Structure and Surface Structure. Initially, two additional levels of representation were introduced (LF — Logical Form, and PF — Phonetic Form), and then in the 1990s Chomsky sketched out a new program of research known as Minimalism, in...

References: 1. ^ Chomsky, Noam (1995). The Minimalist Program. MIT Press.
2. ^ Chomsky, Noam (1965). Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. MIT Press. ISBN 0262530074.
3. ^ The Port-Royal Grammar of 1660 identified similar principles; Chomsky, Noam (1972).Language and Mind. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 0151478104.
4. ^ Jackendoff, Ray (1974). Semantic Interpretation in Generative Grammar. MIT Press.ISBN 0262100134.
5. ^ May, Robert C. (1977). The Grammar of Quantification. MIT Phd Dissertation. ISBN 0824013921.(Supervised by Noam Chomsky, this dissertation introduced the idea of "logical form.")
9. ^ Chomsky, Noam (1995). The Minimalist Program. MIT Press. ISBN 0262531283.
10. ^ Lappin, Shalom; Robert Levine and David Johnson (2000). "Topic ... Comment". Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 18 (3): 665–671. doi:10.1023/A:1006474128258.
11. ^ Lappin, Shalom; Robert Levine and David Johnson (2001). "The Revolution Maximally Confused". Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 19 (4): 901–919.doi:10.1023/A:1013397516214.
12. ^ Peters, Stanley; R. Ritchie (1973). "On the generative power of transformational grammars".Information Sciences 6: 49–83. doi:10.1016/0020-0255(73)90027-3.
13. ^ Chomsky, Noam (1956). "Three models for the description of language". IRE Transactions on Information Theory 2 (3): 113–124. doi:10.1109/TIT.1956.1056813.
14. ^ Shieber, Stuart (1985). "Evidence against the context-freeness of natural language".Linguistics and Philosophy 8 (3): 333–343. doi:10.1007/BF00630917.
15. ^ Pullum, Geoffrey K.; Gerald Gazdar (1982). "Natural languages and context-free languages".Linguistics and Philosophy 4 (4): 471–504. doi:10.1007/BF00360802.
16. ^ Goldsmith, John A (1995). "Phonological Theory". In John A. Goldsmith. The Handbook of Phonological Theory. Blackwell Handbooks in Linguistics. Blackwell Publishers. p. 2.ISBN 1405157682.
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