“METHODS, APPROACHES AND TECHNIQUES OF LANGUAGE LEARNING” An approach to language teaching is something that reflects a certain model or research paradigm- a theory. This term is the broadest of the three. A method, on the other hand, is a set of procedures, i.e., a system that spells out rather precisely how to teach a language. Methods are more specific than approaches but less specific than techniques. Methods are typically compatible with one (or sometimes two) approaches. A technique is a classroom device or activity and thus represents the narrowest term of the three concepts. Some techniques are widely used and found in many methods (e.g., imitation and repetition); however, some techniques are specific to or characteristic of a given method (e.g.,using cuisinaire rods = the Silent Way).
Classical approach In learning of L2, is the old method of learning. Grammar Translation Method Is based on this aproach. Classical approach has following characteristics which are as follows: 1- It is used to teach classical languages such as Greek and Latin. Greek myths were in this form. 2- The teacher taught the rules of second language.
3- The mother tongue is used in class enviornment or the lecture is conducted in mother tounge 4- It emphsizes on translation of target language into mother language 5- It emphasizes on reading comprehnsion question
6- This approach emphasizes on grammar.
GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD This method of learning the language is based on classical approach. The Grammar-Translation Method focuses on developing students' appreciation of the target language's literature as well as teaching the language. Students are presented with target-language reading passages and answer questions that follow. Other activities include translating literary passages from one language into the other, memorizing grammar rules, and memorizing native-language equivalents of target language vocabulary. Class work is highly structured, with the teacher controlling all activities. The Grammar Translation Method (GTM) used in teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL) focuses on reading and writing. Language is taught through translation methods, contrasting and comparing the native tongue to the learned language. GTM focuses on sentence structure, grammar, vocabulary and direct translations of the native language to English. The method requires few resources to teach, normally just the use of textbooks or translated passages. Following are the charachteristics of GTM:
In this method, classes are taught in the students' mother tongue, with little active use of the target language. Vocabulary is taught in the form of isolated word lists.
Elaborate explanations of grammar are always provided.
Grammar instruction provides the rules for putting words together; instruction focuses on the form and inflection of words. Little attention is paid to the content of texts.
Drills are exercises in translating disconnected sentences from the target language into the mother tongue, and vice versa. Little or no attention is given to pronunciation.
ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF GTM
Translation is the easiest and shortest way of explaining meaning of words and phrases. Learners have no difficulties to understand the lesson as it is carried out in the mother tongue. It is a labor-saving method as the teacher carries out everything in the mother tongue Develop the skills and abilities of students in reading, writing and translate foreign language literature. Facilitate students in learning foreign languages because the allowed uses mother tongue (native language) in the process of teaching the language. GTM is very easily implemented by teachers in the process of language teaching because everyone can easily use these methods in language teaching process without the need for special skills. DIS ADVANTAGES
What the method is good at is “teaching about the language” , not...
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