Part 1. ORAL SPEECH
Chapter 1. THE CULTURE OF SPEECH IN PRE-LITERARY SOCIETIES
1.1 THE GENRES OF ORAL SPEECH
Oral speech is a heterogeneous phenomenon which is being formed throughout time. Classification of utterances is complex and has many aspects to it. There are various approaches to classification of utterances. One of such approaches to classifying genres and types of oral speech is based on the communicative situation. Thus the types of utterances are divided by the number of people involved in creating and receiving speech (a monologue and a dialogue), by the message (a phillippic, a polemic, a panegyric), etc. A different approach to classifying utterances is based on the function of the speech act (a common every-day communication, liturgy, forensics, propaganda, theater, instruction, etc.). Functional classes of oral speech are divided into genres of utterances. Thus, dialogues within every-day communication are divided by their context: for instance, a dialogue in a hotel, a dialogue on a bus, a dialogue in the doctor's office, etc. . Another example is the codification of genres in liturgy - they are a sermon, a reading and a series of hymnologic genres: psalm, tropar', kondak, vozglas, etc. Forensic, religious, military, political, propagandistic eloquence are studied under oratory . The genres used on television and radio are variedly codified: information, story, review, interview, radiorama, etc. Equally detailed is the codification of theatrical speech: drama, comedy, stage monologue, stage dialogue, variety show conversation genres, etc. The genres of pedagogical speech are divided by methodological objective: a lecture and a seminar further diverge by the type of assignments. Thus, the general genre classification of oral speech is a complex task requiring a special approach. The classifications listed above belong to particular areas of philology, since in the long run they depend on the historically formed structure of specific philological disciplines: rhetoric, liturgy, language teaching methodology, journalism theory, etc. As for general philology, it has a uniform basis for text classification - the texture of texts. Modern oral speech is divided into three large classes by the manner of its production. One such class is literary speech proper, i.e. speech that is first written and then read, or memorized and only then pronounced. This kind of speech comprises first of all stage speech (except compering), liturgical speech (except sermon), practically all genres used on television and radio (except interview), etc. Pronouncing such a speech the speaker orally reproduces a definite written prototype. Another class is speech that does not have and cannot have a written prototype. Such are all everyday-dialogues, various oral business negotiations, various types or orally transmitted rumors, fairy tales that are created while telling them or reproduced from memory. In short, this class comprises all utterances which are created orally and only later may be in some way fixed in a written, magnetic of other recording.
One should notice that some of such texts often are purposefully protected from recording. Thus, a folklorist or an ethnographer may come across a situation when their informant for certain reasons does not want a text that only he or she knows to be written down. There is a direct prohibition on writing down or taking minutes of many intimate or secret talks.
Alongside with those two large classes of utterances there is a third, transitional one, containing features of both classes. Thus, all kinds of speeches belonging to oratory (i.e. forensic, political, military speeches, lectures, propagandistic or preaching appearances, various speeches in meetings, presentations, etc.) have this particular feature: they are not necessarily first written and then pronounced. They may be pronounced impromptu, or be first submitted in the written form and...
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