paradigmatic stylistics :
phonetics - italics, capitalisation, repetition of letters, onomatopoeia; morphology - deprsonification;
lexicology - Positive: poetic, official, professional. Neutral. Negative: colloquial, neologosims, jargon, slang, nonce-word, vulgar words; syntax - completeness of sentence structure: ellipsis, aposiopesis, one-member nominative sentences, repetition of sentence parts, syntactic tautology, polysydenton. Word order: inversion of sentence members. Communicative types of sentences: quasi-affirmative sentences, quasi-interrogative sentences, quasi-negative sentences, quasi-imperative sentences. Type of syntactic connection: detachment, parenthetic elements, asyndetic subordination and coordination; semantics - hyperbole, meosis, metonymy, metaphor, allusion, personification, antonomasia, allegory, irony. Detached construction A specific arrangement of sentence members is observed in detachment, a stylistic device based on singling out a secondary member of the sentence with the help of punctuation (intonation). The word-order here is not violated, but secondary members obtain their own stress and intonation because they are detached from the rest of the sentence by commas, dashes or even a full stop as in the following cases: "He had been nearly killed, ingloriously, in a jeep accident." "Sir Pitt came in first, very much flushed, and rather unsteady in his gait." (Thackeray). The essential quality of detached construction lies in the fact that the isolated parts represent a kind of independent whole thrust into The sentence or placed in a position which will make the phrase (or word) seem independent. But a detached phrase cannot rise to the rank of a primary member of the sentence—it always remains secondary from the semantic point of view, although structurally it possesses all the features of a "primary' member. This clash of the structural and semantic aspects of detached constructions produces the desired effect—forcing the...
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