Psycholinguistic Peculiarities of Oral Speech

Topics: Linguistics, Noam Chomsky, Psycholinguistics Pages: 8 (2523 words) Published: April 26, 2013
Psycholinguistic peculiarities of oral speech

Psycholinguistic or psychology of language is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enables humans to acquire, use and comprehend and produce language. Psycholinguistics covers the cognitive processes that make it possible to generate a grammatical and meaningful sentence out of vocabulary and grammatical structures as well as the processes that make it possible to understand utterances, words, texts. Psycholinguistics is an interdisciplinary field. Hence, it is studied by researchers from a variety of different backgrounds, such as psychology, cognitive science, linguistics and speech and language pathology. Psycholinguistics studies many different topics, but these topics can generally be divided into answering the following questions: 1. How do people process and comprehend language?

2. How do people produce language?
3. How do adults acquire new language?
Psycholinguistics is concerned with the nature of the computations and processes that the brain undergoes to comprehend and produce language. For example, the cohort model seeks to describe how words are retrieved from the mental lexicon when an individual hears or sees linguistic input. Recent research using new non-invasive imaging techniques seeks to shed light on just where certain language processes occur in the brain. There are a number of unanswered questions in psycholinguistics such as whether the human ability to use syntax is based on innate mental structures or emerges from interaction with other humans, and whether some animals can be taught the syntax of human language. Two other major subfields of psycholinguistics investigate first language acquisition, the process by which infants acquire language and second language acquisition . In addition, it is much more difficult for adults to acquire second language that it is for infants to learn their first language (bilingual infants are able to learn both of their native languages easily. Thus, sensitive periods may exist during which language can be learned readily. A great deal of research in psycholinguistics focuses on how this ability develops and diminishes over time. It also seems to be the case that the more language one knows, the easier it is to learn more. It does appear that young children have a much richer capacity to develop and to acquire many languages simultaneously than adults have. In many parts of the world, young children pick up four or five different languages. For example, many Mexican kids who grow up in American community keep being bilingual as at home they practice Spanish with their family members who speak only Spanish and they speak English at school and with their friends without even realizing the obstacles and challenges. Eventually they grow up bilinguals with fluent knowledge of 2 languages which in the future may throw light on them offering a lot of well-paid government jobs. So this is the advantage of being and growing bilingual at an early age which can be much more difficult to accomplish and overcome for an adult. Adults can experience lots of hardship and speech difficulties for which they cannot even be blamed for. Kids can easily produce and comprehend language difficulties than adults due to good memory and young age.

Kids are more prone to learning new languages and discovering new things than adults. Learning a second language or trying to explore it, can be too abstruse for them and they can have difficulty in understanding or judging even the simple ordinary conversation.

Psycholinguistics study how word meaning, sentence meaning and discourse meaning are computed and represented in the mind. They study how complex words and sentences are composed in speech and how they are broken down into their constituents in the acts of listening and reading. In short, psycholinguistics seeks to understand how language is done. In general, psycholinguistic...
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