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Methods used with older children and adolescents: tests of language compregension Making inferences
Jack went to a Mexican restaurant. He left without giving a tip. Jack didn’t leave atip because: The restaurant close when he arrived.
He only had enough money to pay for his meal
He wasn’t satisfied with the service
Methods used with older children and adolescents
Receptive vocabulary : Peabody picture vocabulary test:
Fourth edition (PPCT -4)
Expressive Vocabulary: Wechsler Preschool and primary scale of intelligence, Wechsler intelligence scale for children Prelinguistic Communication
Infant was read a story while still in the womb in utero and then a few days after being born they were read another story and then the same story and they were shown to be able to distinct between the two different stories. Biggest debate about what the infants could tell the difference between and what the retained from the first story. Eg-> sound, melody, context, etc. Motherese:
“baby talk”, motherese because it is mostly used by mothers, but also used by fathers. Proven that babies prefer this over regular speech; this may be because 1) you can express emotions more exaggeratedly, really has the ability to capture the infants attention, actually helps them to differentiate words within the language. When introducing a new word, mothers usually tend to use motherese at first. Prelinguistic Communication: Gestures:
Pointing: two reasons:
Request (imperative gestures) : asking for something
Assertions (declarative gestures): bring attention to something, just really want to point something out to someone to be able to share the moment with someone. Pointing is more about the theory of mind
Researchers have done experiments where when infants point at something to share the moment with a parent the parent is directed to look at the infant but never the actual object that the infant is point to or at; this has proven to upset the infant Abnormalities in Early Communication autism:
At present there is no cure for autism.
Sensitivity to eye gazes:
Children 6-10 months of age were given pictures where the eyes were either looking towards or away from the infant, years later some children had developed autism. Fis phenomenon – if a baby pronounces something incorrectly and then you jokingly (intentionally or unintentionally) mispronounce it the same way the infant did, the infant actually shows signs of getting upset because they understand that they have pronounced the word incorrectly, but are unable to pronounce it correctly yet. Infants born three months prematurely are still able to distinct between female and male voices; even though there still not fully developed in brain functioning This shows strong evidence for language being innate
Phonological Development: Perception – categorical perception example: Categorical perception:
Fast mapping: the incredibly fast pace in which infants learn new words, they can pick up the meaning of a new word almost right away and even months later they will remember it. Eg- > you ask infants to give you not the blue, but the acromium tray. They automatically know that since this one is not the blue one, it must be the acromium one, months later they will still remember this Through most stages of language development, boys are usually an approximate of 3 months behind in development up until puberty. Evolutionary reasons, also because mothers talk to girls more and in a different manner then they do with boys. But there is no evidence supporting this, also because of motor-skills. Boys are usually better at gross-motor skills like kicking and punching right off the bat whereas girls are better with fine-motor skills like drawing and so on so because gestures and development of language are correlated it could be an explanation for why there is a lag in the language development of boys....
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