Meaning of Development
* Development is not purely an economic phenomenon but rather a multi-dimensional process involving reorganization and reorientation of entire economic AND social system * Development is process of improving the quality of all human lives with three equally important aspects. These are: Todaro’s Three Objectives of Development
* . Raising peoples’ living levels, i.e. incomes and consumption, levels of food, medical services, education through relevant growth processes * 2. Creating conditions conducive to the growth of peoples’ self-esteem through the establishment of social, political and economic systems and institutions which promote human dignity and respect * 3. Increasing peoples’ freedom to choose by enlarging the range of their choice variables, e.g. varieties of goods and services Alternative Interpretations of Development
* Development as Economic Growth- too often commodity output as opposed to people is emphasized-measures of growth in GNP. Note here the persistence of a dual economy where the export sector contains small number of workers but draws technology as opposed to traditional sector where most people work and is dominated by inefficient technology * Development as Modernization- emphasizes process of social change which is required to produce economic advancement; examines changes in social, psychological and political processes; * How to develop wealth oriented behavior and values in individuals; profit seeking rather than subsistence and self sufficiency * Shift from commodity to human approach with investment in education and skill training * Development as Distributive Justice- view development as improving basic needs Interest in social justice which has raised three issues: * 1.Nature of goods and services provided by governments * 2. Matter of access of these public goods to different social classes * 3. How burden of development can be shared among these...
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