According to the King of Economics, Adam Smith: “No society can be flourishing and happy of which, by far, the greater part of the numbers are poor and miserable.” With respect to the current positions of least developing countries; Adam Smith could not have been more accurate. The purpose of this essay is to show that a developing nation can only achieve new levels of growth by implementing both rural and urban development strategies simultaneously, as they converge towards the advancement of the entire country where all citizens of the country benefit from government policy. This essay encompasses three different cases. In Case 1, we outline the various rural development strategies and assess the impact of any developing nation favouring rural development policies over urban biased policies. Then, in Case 2, we list possible urban-biased policies that governments of poorer nations give preferentiality to over its rural counterparts. Finally, we use Taiwan, a former least developing country, to illustrate how the implementation of both rural development strategies and urban-biased policies can, together, lead to the successful advancement of poorer countries. This should help us to better understand the direction that government policies need to progress towards.
Case 1: Rural Development Strategies and the Effects of Giving Rural Development Strategies Preference over Urban-Biased Policies
Ghana is undoubted one of the poorest and underdeveloped African countries. With their agricultural sector dominated by weak linkages to industry, this sector is also characterised by a low level of technology and productivity, and a low level of income. The main focus of agriculture development according to the National Development of Planning Commission; was accelerating economic growth. This, being projected to be achieved by directing policy measures towards addressing loss of biodiversity, promoting sustainable extraction and use of mineral resources, integration of water resource management as well as advanced education and health facilities.. The critical role of infrastructure in propelling economic growth and sustainable poverty reduction has become crucial as Ghana aspires to become a middle-income country. This priority should be given to expansion of economic infrastructure to ensure that services are reliable, affordable and efficient. Female-headed households, female members of rural households and the marginalised member of rural communities tend to be more limited as compared to men in rural areas. The government should integrate women into the economic mainstream and ensure that women benefit directly for development programmes. Also, policies should make provision for services offering child care and family planning to working mothers. This should help to lighten the burden of women’s’ reproductive roles and permit them a greater degree of economic participation. During Apartheid, South Africa’s resources were used to develop urban areas; leaving remote rural areas neglected despite economic potential. As a result, South Africa was left divided into developed and wealthy urban areas, and underdeveloped and poor rural areas. . When Jacob Zuma started his post, he created the Department of Rural Development to deal specifically with the task of bridging the wide gap between urban and rural development. In a 2006, Kwazulu-Natal spatial development report, Nkandla was named as one of the 50 most deprived regions in the province. Such initiatives surely lead to less people leaving rural areas in search of better opportunities in urban areas, however, over the past few weeks, south Africa has witnessed the President’s former village, Nkandla, getting a R582m upgrade of roads linking Nkandla to Eshowe and the village of KwaNxamalala to Kranskop.There has also been almost R12.5m allocated to a yet-to-be-built one-stop development centre near Nkandla and another one nearby to provide everything...
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