Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and faeces. An improved sanitation facility is one that hygienically separates human excreta from human contact. Improved sanitation generally involves physically closer facilities, less waiting time, and safer disposal of excreta. Poor sanitation is responsible for one of the heaviest existing disease burdens worldwide. The diseases associated with poor sanitation and unsafe water account for about 10% of the global burden of disease. The most common disease of poor health associated with poor sanitation is a diarrhoeal disease. Globally, about 1.7 million people die every year from diarrhoeal diseases, and 90% are children under 5 years of age, mostly in developing countries. 88% percent of cases of diarrhoeal diseases worldwide are attributable to unsafe water, inadequate sanitation, and poor hygiene.
In this essay I will analyse the economic benefits of sanitation, the economic disadvantages, the link between a rise in GDP and the access to sanitation in regions all over the world including Asia, Africa, Europe and North America. I will do this by analysing data set curves which I have obtained from a various amount of sources such as national journals, reports and articles relating to this subject. I will be using data sets from the UNEP and carrying out multiple regressions. Finally I will be looking at the Environmental Kuznets model to see whether it applies to this relationship between economic growth and the access to sanitation.
According to 2010 figures, approximately 2 billion people do not use improved sanitation facilities, two-thirds of which live in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. By looking at Figure 1 we can see that it is in the developed regions such as North America and parts of Europe where people have a good access to sanitation, while on the other hand it is the mostly the developing regions such as Asia and sub-Saharan Africa with the poor access to sanitation. This figure already makes the relationship between economic development and access to sanitation vaguely clear. The Asian and African regions would be a good place to have a look at this relationship even more closely; this is because over the past few decades, countries in the Asian regions such as China have undergone a huge advance in economic growth while on the other hand there has been little or non-existent economic growth in the African regions. Asia is the world's fastest growing economic region. China is the largest economy in Asia and the second largest economy in the world. Moreover, Asia is the site of some of the world's longest economic booms and by looking at Figure 2 it is evident to see that over the past few decades there has been a dramatic rise in the GDP of Asia but very little in the GDP of Africa. Now by looking at Figure 3 which is a graph showing the level of improved drinking/safe water coverage, improved as in drinking-water sources such as piped water to the house or yard, public taps and rainwater collection. Improved sanitation facilities including flush or pour-flush toilets connected to a piped sewer system. By looking at this we can see that in Asia there has also been a dramatic rise in the access to unpolluted water which is a positive relation to the GDP. I gathered the data which is on Figures 2 and 3 onto excel and carried out a regression analysis for the Asian region to help understand to what extent the strength in the relationship between the dependent variable (GDP) and the independent variable (Sanitation) which is shown on Figure 4. By looking at the R squared we can see that this model has a strong explanatory power as it is very close to 1. According to the coefficient we can also see that every time the GDP increases by $50billion, there is an increase of almost 3.4 million people with improved access to sanitation.
Poor sanitation results in an economic loss as it is linked...
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