27. Kinds of epithet. Structural typesof epithets.
EPITHET – an stylistic device emphasizing some quality of a person, thing\idea. Function – characterization, very subjective and evaluative. Shouldn’t be confused with logical attributes. (wooden table, wooden face, grey sky – steel sky.) Epithets are said to create an image, there is a certain mood attributed, while logical attribute give characteristic properties of an object or a theme. Fixed epithet(stable) – they become fixed through long. (красна девица, диво дивное, a fair lady, true love, green wood). Structurally epithets can be of different kinds: 1. As single epithet=> adj+noun (angry sky, dead silence); 2. In pairs (a tired old town); 3. In strings, chains (in the cold grey street-washing milk delivering); 4. Simple –they are used singly in the attributive or adverbial positions(an angry sky); 5.Compound – built by compound adj (a cloud-shaped giant, flout-like voice); 6. Two step structures – an adv+adj (a pompously majestic female); 7. A phrase\sentence epithet – (I don’t care attitude); 8. Inverted, reversed, metaphorical - based on a metaphor and is commonly expressed by an of-phrase(the toy of a girl, a ghost of smile, the devil of a woman.). Used to characterize the object, to stress the peculiar features of the object described. To give an individual evaluation, to give an emotional assessment. Logical attribute:
1)Semantic criterion: - associated epithet (approximately = logical attrib); - unassociated epithet (subjective); fixed epithet. 2)Structural criterion: - simple; - compound; - phrase\sentence. 3)Distributional criterion -> epithets which occur in pairs, a chain of epithets: - reversed, - transferred. 12.Phrase and idiom. The stylistic potential and function of phrases in a discourse. Zeugma. Phraseology is used in 2 meanings at least: 1- branch of lexicology studying structural & semantic peculiarities of said expressions & a stock of said expressions existing in a lang. All said expressions existing in language 2 groups: 1-in which meaning of the whole can be derived from the meaning of the components(break the law) 2-demonstrate fully or partially transferred meaning of the components(said expression proper): non-/predicative expressions.Among the terms for these basic units there’s “idiom”- a group of words whose meaning is impossible to understand from meaning of separate words. Other terms: conventionalized multiword expression, multiword unit, idiomatic word group, collocation, macro lexeme, ready-made utterance. Terms “idiom”& “phrase” may be used in the same context. The use of term “idiom” seems attributive to British & American study where idiom-umbrella term for wordlike & sentencelike said expressions. Compound unit-a stable combination of words with a fully or partially figurative meaning. The general char of phrase: 1- polysemic arrangement 2- linguistic stability 3- globality of nomination which reigns supreme over the formal separability of elements 4-the optional char-rhythmical arrangement based on a rhyme (by nook or by crook)& sound identity(as right as rain). Stylistic potential of phrase lies in discriminating between a neutral word & a phrase because phrase has a new additional connotation. A special case of phr unit is called zeugma - a figure of speech which consists of 1 main element & adjuncts. It’s based on contrast between the syntactic identity & semantic incontactability/incongruity-lack of semantic links(“She was wearing a white dress & a smile on her face”). 1.The definition of the term “style”. Stylistics and its connection with other branches of linguistics. The problem of the norm in style. 27 meanings of the word ‘style’ are registered in Oxford dictionary. Stylistics come from the word style, which originated from Latin “stilus”- a little pointed stick, used for writing on wax tablets, which by metonymy came to mean 1) the manner of speaking or doing something (good or bad style); 2) the mode of...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document