1. General Notes on Style and Stylistics.
The subject of stylistics has so far not been definitely outlined. This is due to a number of reasons.First of all there is a confusion between the terms style and stylistics. The first concept is so broad that it is hardly possible to regard it as a term. We speak of style in architecture, literature, behaviour, linguistics, dress and other fields of human activity Even in linguistics the word style is used so widely that it needs interpretation. The majority of linguists who deal with the subject of style agree that the term applies to the following fields of investigation.: 1) the aesthetic function of language;
2) expressive means in language;
3) synonymous ways of rendering one and the same idea;
4) emotional colouring of language;
5) a system of special devices called stylistic devices;
6) the splitting of the literary language into separate subsystems called stylistic devices; 7) the interrelation between language and thought;
8) the individual manner of an author in making use of language. The word s t у I e is derived from the Latin word 'stylus' which meant a short stick sharp at one end and flat at the other used by the Romans for writing on wax tablets. The word s t y l I s t I c s is derived from French ‘’stylistique’’ which meant instrument for writing. The term style also signifies a literary genre. Thus we speak of classical style or the style of classicism; realistic style; the style of romanticism and so on. On the other hand, the term is widely used in literature, being applied to the various kinds of literary work, the fable, novel, ballad, story etc. Galperin: Stylisitics is a branch of general linguistics, which deals with the following two interdependent tasks: a) studies the totality of special linguistic means ( stylistic devices and expressive means ) which secure the desirable effect of the utterance; b) studies certain types of texts "discourse" which due to the choice and arrangement of the language are distinguished by the pragmatic aspect of communication (functional styles). Depending on the school of thought there are:
2. Literary stylistics;
3. Stylistics of decoding;
1. Linguo - stylistics is the study of literary discourse from a linguistic orientation. The linguistics is concerned with the language codes themselves and particular messages of interest and so far as to exemplify how the codes are constructed. 2. Literary stylistics: is to explicate the message to interprete and evaluate literary writings as the works of art. 3. Stylistics of decoding can be presented in the following way: sender - message - receiver speaker - book - reader.
The subject of stylistics can be outlined as the study of the nature, functions and structure of stylistic devices, on the one hand, and, on the other, the study of each style of language as classified above, i, e, its aim, its structure, its characteristic features and the effect it produces, as well as its interrelation with other styles of language. A style of Language is a system of interrelated language means which serves a definite aim in communication. The peculiar choice of language means is primarily dependent on the aim of communication. We may distinguish the following styles within the English literary language: 1) the belles- letters style; 2) the publicistic style; 3) the newspaper style; 4} the scientific prose style; 5) the style of official documents and presumably some others.
2. Individual Style and Individual Manner.
The individual style of an author is frequently identified with the general, generic term 'style'. But as has already been pointed out, style is a much broader notion. The individual style of an author is only one of the applications of the general term 'style'. The analysis of an author's language seems to be the most important procedure in estimating his individual style. This is obvious not only because language is the...
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