General Notes on Styles and Stylistics
There is confusion between the terms style and stylistics. The first concept is so broad that it is hardly possible to regard it as term. We speak of style in architecture, literature, linguistics, behavior, dress and other fields of human activity. Even in linguistics the word style is used so widely that it needs interpretation. The majority of linguists who deal with the subject of style agree that the term applies to the following fields of investigation: 1) the aesthetic function of language;
2) expressive means in language;
3) synonymous ways of rendering one and the same idea;
4) emotional coloring of language;
5) a system of special devices called stylistic devices;
6) the splitting of the literary language into separate subsystems called stylistic devices; 7) the interrelation between language and thought;
8) the individual manner of an author in making use of language. There is a widely held view that style is the correspondence between thought and expression: the linguistic form of the idea expressed always reflects the peculiarities of the thought, and vice versa, the character of the thought will manifest itself in the language forms chosen for the expression of the idea. Another commonly accepted connotation of the term style is embellishment of language. In its extreme, style may dress the thought in such fancy attire that one can hardly get at the idea hidden behind the elaborate design of tricky stylistic devices. A very popular notion among practical linguists, teachers of language, is that style is technique of expression. In this sense style is generally defined as the ability to write clearly, correctly and in a manner calculated to the interest of the reader. The term style also signifies a literary genre. Thus we speak of classical style or realistic style, the style of romanticism and so on. On the other hand, the term is widely used in literature, being applied to the various kinds of literary work, the fable, novel, ballad, story etc. Finally there is one more important application of the term style. We speak of the different styles of language. Thus we may distinguish the following styles within the English literary language: 1) the belles- letters style;
2) the publicistic style;
3) the newspaper style;
4} the scientific prose style;
5) the style of official documents.
Stylistic Classification of the English Vocabulary
The word stock of a language may be represented as a definite system in which different aspects of words may be singled out as interdependent. A special branch of linguistic science - lexicology - has done much to classify vocabulary. For linguistic stylistics, stylistic classification is the most important. English language can be divided into three main layers: the literary layer, the neutral layer and the colloquial layer. The aspect of the literary layer is its markedly bookish character. It’s this that makes the layer more or less stable. The aspect of the colloquial layer of words is its lively spoken character. It’s this that makes it unstable, fleeting. The aspect of the neutral layer is its universal character. That means it is unrestricted in its use. It can be employed in all styles of language and in all spheres of human activity. The literary vocabulary consists of the following groups of words: 1) common literary; 2) terms and learned words; 3) poetic words; 4) archaic words; 5) barbarisms & foreign words; 6) literary coinages including nonce words. The colloquial vocabulary falls into the following groups: 1) common colloquial words; 2) slang; 3) jargonisms; 4) professional words; 5) dialectal words; 6) vulgar words; 7) colloquial coinages. The common literary, neutral and common colloquial words are grouped under the term Standard English vocabulary.
Phonetic Expressive Means and Stylistic Devices
The stylistic approach to the utterance is not confined to its structure and sense. There is another...
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