TEXT LINGUISTICS

Topics: Semantics, Anaphora, Exophora Pages: 13 (441 words) Published: March 1, 2015
TEXT LINGUISTICS
IS THE STUDY OF TEXT AS A PRODUCT OR AS
A PROCESS

Text-as-a-product







Text-as-a-process

Cohesion
Coherence



Topical organization

Illocutionary structure

Communicative functions




Text production
Text reception

Text interpretation

TEXT AS A COMMUNICATIVE
OCCURRENCE MEETS:
7 constructive
principles of
communication







Cohesion
Coherence


Intentionality



Acceptability



Informativity



3 regulative principles
of communication

Situationality
Intertextuality




Efficiency

Effectiveness

Appropriateness

I. COHESION-FIRST CONSTRUCTIVE
PRINCIPLE OF TEXTUAL COMMUNICATION

Is the way in which linguistic
items of which texts are constituted
are meaningfully interconnected in
sequences.
According to Halliday and Hasan
there are 2 types of cohesion:
 Grammatical
 Lexical

GRAMMATICAL COHESION
CAN BE OF 4 TYPES:
1. Reference
2. Substitution
3. Ellipsis
4. Conjunction

1. THERE ARE 2 TYPES OF
REFERENCE:
 Exophoric

reference- realized by deixis

Ex. Can you see that?
 Endophoric

reference can be direct
(anaphora) and indirect (cataphora):

a)Anaphora
Ex. Three blind mice, see how they run.
b)Cataphora
Ex. I would never believe it, he made me
a proposal.

2. SUBSTITUTION
 Nominal

– realized by usage of “one”, “the
same”, “once”
Ex. -I want fruit ice-cream./ -I want the same.
 Verbal

– realized by usage of only one verb
Ex. I can’t speak Russian, but he can?

3. ELLIPSIS

(OMITTION OF
SMTH.)

Ex.

-Did you get a ten?
-No, a nine.
(No, I got a nine, not a ten)

4. CONJUNCTION
 Additive

– “or”, “thus”, “like”,
“neither”, “nor”, “and”;

 Adversative-

“but”, “however”,
“ever”, “instead of”, “at any rate”;

 Temporal

– “than”, “finally”, “until”,
“from”, “up to now”.

LEXICAL COHESION
Establishes semantic
connectedness through lexical
devices: repetition, synonymy,
collocation, paraphrasing,
partial recurrence.

II. COHERENCE
Continuity of senses which keeps
the text together, that has to be
semantically
and
logically
organized. It is a network of
relations that organizes a text. It’s
also called the general aboutness
of a text .

.

Cohesion

and coherence are
text-centred notions.
The

other five standards of
textuality are user-centred
notins.

.

 III.

Intentionality relates to sender’s
intention to produce a
cohesive/coherent text;
 IV. Informativity touches upon the
probability or expectedness of a text in
the given situation;
 V. Situationality concerns the problem
of making a text relevant to a situation;
 VI. Acceptability concerns the
receivers;
 VII. Intertextuality is concerned with
the ways in which uses of texts depend
on knowledge of other

REGULATIVE PRINCIPLES OF
TEXTUAL COMMUNICATION
 1.

Efficiency requires that a text should
be used with a minimum effort, the
language must be easy for production
and comprehension;
 2. Effectiveness presumes leaving a
strong impression, the use of creative,
original language;
 3. Appropriateness attempts to balance
off the two above principles by seeking
an accord between the text setting and
standards of textuality.

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