IS THE STUDY OF TEXT AS A PRODUCT OR AS
TEXT AS A COMMUNICATIVE
3 regulative principles
I. COHESION-FIRST CONSTRUCTIVE
PRINCIPLE OF TEXTUAL COMMUNICATION
Is the way in which linguistic
items of which texts are constituted
are meaningfully interconnected in
According to Halliday and Hasan
there are 2 types of cohesion:
CAN BE OF 4 TYPES:
1. THERE ARE 2 TYPES OF
reference- realized by deixis
Ex. Can you see that?
reference can be direct
(anaphora) and indirect (cataphora):
Ex. Three blind mice, see how they run.
Ex. I would never believe it, he made me
– realized by usage of “one”, “the
Ex. -I want fruit ice-cream./ -I want the same.
– realized by usage of only one verb
Ex. I can’t speak Russian, but he can?
-Did you get a ten?
-No, a nine.
(No, I got a nine, not a ten)
– “or”, “thus”, “like”,
“neither”, “nor”, “and”;
“ever”, “instead of”, “at any rate”;
– “than”, “finally”, “until”,
“from”, “up to now”.
connectedness through lexical
devices: repetition, synonymy,
Continuity of senses which keeps
the text together, that has to be
organized. It is a network of
relations that organizes a text. It’s
also called the general aboutness
of a text .
and coherence are
other five standards of
textuality are user-centred
Intentionality relates to sender’s
intention to produce a
IV. Informativity touches upon the
probability or expectedness of a text in
the given situation;
V. Situationality concerns the problem
of making a text relevant to a situation;
VI. Acceptability concerns the
VII. Intertextuality is concerned with
the ways in which uses of texts depend
on knowledge of other
REGULATIVE PRINCIPLES OF
Efficiency requires that a text should
be used with a minimum effort, the
language must be easy for production
2. Effectiveness presumes leaving a
strong impression, the use of creative,
3. Appropriateness attempts to balance
off the two above principles by seeking
an accord between the text setting and
standards of textuality.
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