TABLE OF CONTENTS
“Make an assessment of the coherence of the developmental state theory. Give practical examples from Botswana”. What this question asks is to make assessment of coherence of the developmental state theory to Botswana and giving examples from Botswana. This paper makes an assessment of Botswana as developmental state. The main aim of this paper is to establish if Botswana is a developmental state, if yes what mainly drives it and what are its characteristics. In order to achieve these objectives the paper will first define three concepts: state, developmental state and developmental state theory. It goes on to give a summary of Botswana’s History at independence (30 September 1966). Secondly part of the paper will discuss features of Botswana’s developmental state: political leadership oriented towards development, ideological underpinning developmentalist, professional bureaucracy and key ministries, state as an entrepreneurial agent and human development. Lastly the paper will outline some challenges faced by Botswana as a developmental state. 2.0 DEFINITIONS OF CONCEPTS
2.1 (a) State
Comfort defines it as a body and core of nation and its power personified. (Comfort 1993:579) Robert alludes that a state is a set of institutions separate from civil society, through which public policy and laws are decided and executed. (Robert 1991:135) 2.2 (b) Developmental states
Developmental state is a state whose politics have concentrated sufficient power , autonomy and capacity at the centre to shape , pursue and encourage the achievement of explicit developmental objectives , whether by establishing and promoting the conditions and directions of economic growth or by organizing combination of both. (Leftwich 1995:401) Mkandawire defines it as one who’s ideological underpinning is developmentalist, in that it conceives its “mission” as that of ensuring economic development, usually interpreted to mean high rates of accumulation and industrialization. (Mkandawire 2001:290) Edge defines it as state in which the state is the primary agent of socio-economic change and actively directs it, by promoting national development through institutionalised patterns of policy interventions guided by a national development plan that places it at the central to the development process. (Edge 1998:333) 2.3 (c) Developmental state theory
Developmental state theory is a theory by Chalmers Johnson. He invoked the concept “developmental state” to characterize the role played by the Japanese state in Japan’s extraordinary and unexpected post-war enrichment. (Woo-Cumings 1999:33).His model of the developmental state is based on institutional arrangements common to high growth in East Asian economies. (Onis 1991:111).His model has the following features: strong ambition of state to development and economic growth is the priority of national interest. (Onis 1991:111). Secondly the state has pilot organization that control industrial policy in order to fulfil this function such pilot organization are staffed by professional bureaucracy. (Woo-Cuming 1999:39). Dassah state that there has to be political leadership oriented towards development. (Dassah 2011:592). State intervenes in the economy by creating government financial institutions which stimulate the development of private sectors. (Woo-Cuming 1999:39). 3.0 BOTSWANA’S HISTORY AT INDEPENDENCE (1966)
Botswana is a landlocked country in Southern Africa approximately 581 730 squared kilometres in area and it shares the boarders with Namibia , Zambia , Zimbabwe and South Africa.(Okoyo et al, 1986:1).Edge states that Botswana was struggling with the issue of basic survival, some observers regarded the country as non-viable entity to describe the bad economic situation of Botswana. (Edge 1998:335).Edge further stated that Botswana was largely dependent on foreign aid from United Kingdom to pay its recurrent expenditure. (Edge,...
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