Theretical Grammar

Topics: Linguistics, Grammar, Semantics Pages: 20 (6981 words) Published: July 7, 2013

1. The definition of language. The distinction between language and speech. Language as a semiotic system: its functions, elements and structure. Lingual elements (units) as signs. Segmental and supra-segmental lingual units. 2. The levels оf lingual units, their structural and functional features. Hierarchical relations between units of different levels. Language and speech levels. Primary and secondary levels. 3. General principles of grammatical analysis.

4. The systemic character of grammar. Morphology and syntax - the two main sections of grammar. The main unit of morphology. Theoretical and practical grammar. Other types of grammar (indep. work, addit. inf-n). 5. Syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations in grammar.

6. The plane of content and the plane of expression; synonymy and homonymy in grammar. 7. The notions of diachrony and synchrony; diachronic and synchronic relations in grammar. 8. Grammatical meaning. Grammatical category. Grammatical form. (+definitions) 9. From the history of grammar, morphology in particular (indep. work, addit. inf-n)

Key terms: language, speech, sign, lingual unit, system, subsystem, systemic approach, segmental lingual units, supra-segmental lingual units, hierarchy, hierarchical (hierarchic) relations, phoneme, morpheme, word (lexeme), word-combination (phraseme), denoteme, sentence (proposeme), supra-sentential construction (supra-phrasal unity, dicteme), nomination, predication, corteme, signeme, plane of content, plane of expression, synonymous relations (synonymy), homonymous relations (homonymy), paradigm, paradigmatic relations, syntagma, syntagmatic relations, synchrony, synchronic relations, diachrony, diachronic relations

1. Language is a multifaceted, complex phenomenon which can be studied and described from various points of view: as a psychological or cognitive phenomenon, as a social phenomenon, from the point of view of its historic changes, etc. But first and foremost language is treated as a semiotic system (system of signs). A system is a structured set of elements united by a common function. Language is a system of specific interconnected and interdependent lingual signs united by their common function of forming, storing and exchanging ideas in the process of human intercourse. A systemic approach prevails in many spheres of linguistics, and it is particularly relevant and important in the sphere of grammar. The foundations of systemic language description were formulated at the turn of the 20th century in the works of many linguists, among them the Russian linguists I. A. Baudoin de Courtenay, A. A. Potebnya and others. The originator of the systemic approach in linguistics is considered to be a Swiss scholar Ferdinand de Saussure. He was the first to divide the phenomenon of language in general into two sides: an ‘executive’ side (‘parole’), concerned with the production, transmission, and reception of speech, and an underlying language system (‘langue’). This is one of the basic postulates of modern systemic linguistics, according to which language in general comprises two aspects: the system of special lingual units, language proper, and the use of the lingual units, speech proper. In other words 1) language in the narrow sense of the term is a system of means of expression, while speech is the manifestation of the system of language in the process of intercourse. 2) The system of language comprises the lingual units and the rules of their use, while speech includes the act of producing utterances and the result of it (the text). 3) Speech is individual, personal while language is common for all individuals. 4) Language is abstract and speech is concrete. 5) Language is stable, less changeable while speech tends to changes. 6) Language is a closed system, its units are limited while speech tends to openness and infinity (безкінечність). Other...
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