THOMAS HOBBES : ABSOLUTE MONARCHY IS THE BEST GOVERNMENT
Thomas Hobbes was an English philosopher who is known by everyone up to this day century for his philosophies about political philosophy. Thomas Hobbes was born on April 5, 1588. He was born in Westport, near Mamesbury, Wiltshire, England. He receives his college education at Oxford University in England. Thomas Hobbes was not only a philosopher but he was a political science, academician , historian, philosopher , and journalist. Leviathan was one of the most influential books written by Thomas Hobbes that use as a references by Western political philosophy basically from the perspective of social contract theory. One of the main topics that have always been a major topic in his political philosophy is self-interested nature of human cooperation, and political society based on a "social contract". After Hobbes left Oxford, he became the private tutor for William Cavendish, the eldest son of Lord Cavendish of Hardwick. In 1610, Hobbes travelled with William Cavendish to France, Italy and Germany. After the dead of William Cavendish in 1628, Hobbes later worked for the Marquess of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, a cousin of William Cavendish, and the marquess's brother, Sir Charles Cavendish. Hobbes entered political involvement through his association with the Cavendish family. Hobbes entered into the activities of the king, members of Parliament, and other wealthy landowners were discussed, and his intellectual abilities brought him close to power. The late William Cavendish was a Member of Parliament from 1614 to 1621. Through these channels, Hobbes began to observe the influence and structures of power and government. In the late 1930s, Hobbes became linked with the royalists in disputes between the king and Parliament, as the two factions were in conflict over the big power of kingly powers, especially regarding raising money for armies. The conflict then culminated in the English Civil Wars (1642-1651), which led to the king being executed and a republic being declared. This event finally makes Hobbes to left the country to preserve his own safety. He starts to live in France, Paris from 1640 to 1651. Hobbes starts to write his first book Leviathan when he was at Paris. The event of English Civil Wars (1642-1651) gave Hobbes an idea about human nature and led him to the publication of his first book ‘Leviathan’. Thomas Hobbes wrote his most famous work entitled ‘Leviathan’ on the middle of the English Civil War. Hobbes ‘Leviathan’ book were published in 1651. In this ’Leviathan’ book, Hobbes had stated his views and opinions into four important parts. The first part of ‘Leviathan’ is about human nature. Hobbes draws upon not only common-sense experienced, but also on what he considers to be scientific explanations about human physical bodies and peculiarities which set them apart from one another. Besides that, Hobbes also try to prove that it is impossible for two people agree fully with one another, let alone for a whole commonwealth to agree, hence his view the obvious need for an absolute sovereign. He also introduces the state of nature, in which human nature unchecked provokes chaos and radical insecurity. Finally, Hobbes tries to show how passions and superstition block people’s ability to see where their true interest lies: in submission and peace. In Leviathan second part, “of Commonwealth” explains Hobbes ideas on the rights of nature on laws of nature and their relationship to the civil society. Hobbes develop his famous social contract, in which each individual agrees to give up his or her right to self reservation in nature and hand over all authority to sovereign power, where it becomes irrevocable. This second part would not make sense unless the reader accepts Hobbes’s view of human nature developed in part one. If humans can be guided by more rational agreement and we can generally assume goodwill, then it is possible to contemplate a stable democracy...
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