A Person You Admire or Respect

Topics: Linguistics, Language, Grammar Pages: 9 (2224 words) Published: June 16, 2013
Linguist : A person who studies linguistics
How does linguistics differ from traditional grammar ?

1. Linguistics is descriptive not prescriptive that means ( linguists are interested in what is said not what they think ought to be said ) 2. they describe all aspects of language but don’t prescribe rules of correctness . 3. Linguists regard the spoken language as primary not the written . 4. Linguistics doesn’t force languages into a Latin-based framework , and they are trying to set up a universal framework and there is no reason to be alike the grammar of Latin or the grammar of any other languages . Phonetic : the study of human speech sounds .

The scope of linguistics 
Phonetics : studies the production and perception of speech sounds. Phonology : studies the sound system of a particular language. Syntax : words order. Studies how words combine by form grammatical sentences. Semantics : the study of meaning in language.

Pragmatics : is the interpretation of linguistic meaning in context.

Linguistic context : is discourse that precedes a sentence to be interpreted and situational context is knowledge about the word. Contextual linguistics : is that realm where linguistics interacts with other disciplines.  Such as:

Psycholinguistics : the study of language and mind.
Sociolinguistics : the study of language and society.
Applied linguistics : the application of linguistics to language teaching. Computational linguistics : the use of computer to simulate language and its working. Philosophical linguistics : the link between language and logical thought. Historical linguistics: the study of language change

Compare between synchronic and diachronic studies of language?

Synchronic : studies a language at one point in time but with different places  . Diachronic : studies a language structural changes over period of time in One place but different times .

Define linguistics and linguist . and why there is a tendency to change this term into linguistician? Linguistics : is the scientific study of human language , including subjects such as phonology , morphology , syntax , semantics, sociolinguistics , and psycholinguistics. Linguist : is the person who study linguistics .

there is a tendency to change this term into (linguisticion) to differentiate it from the other meaning of ) linguist ( which refers to the person who speaks number of languages .

Q / Why linguistics is descriptive while traditional grammar is prescriptive ? Linguistics is purely descriptive :
The linguistics seek to clarify trying to chart future language directions.They are interested in what is said not what they thing ought to be said . they study the ways human use systems to communicate through language  Descriptive grammarians describe and analyze what speakers of language say . Traditional grammar is prescriptive.

They prescribe what people should say rather than describe what they do say. They put asset of rules governing the use of language they tell speakers what they should say .Speech versus writing 

Q / Why do traditional grammar regard the written from as primary? The written form is more permanent than the spoken one .It is difficult to cope with fleeting utterances before the invention of sound record.Of course, linguistics agree that the study of written language can be worthwhile and valuable Q / Why doesn't linguistics force language into a Latin base framework, while traditional grammarians do ? Traditional grammarians assume that Latin provides a universal framework into which all languages fit While linguists are opposed to the nation that any one language can provide an adequate framework for all the others. They are trying to set a universal framework The scope of linguistics.

Part three:

Nineteenth century ( historical linguistics ) :

before the 19th century all western world was interest to philosophers like the Greek philosophers Plato And Aristotle , and...
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